Are smoking intensity and cessation related to cataract surgical risk in diabetic patients? Findings from the 45 and Up Study.Eye (Lond) 2019E
To investigate if smoking was related to the risk of cataract surgery in diabetic patients.
A total of 9578 diabetic participants aged 45-65 years were enrolled from the 45 and Up Study, the largest population-based cohort study in Australia. Baseline questionnaire data were linked to the Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) database, which were both available from 2004 to 2016. Cataract surgery was determined according to the MBS. Smoking status were assessed by questionnaire. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between smoking and incidence of cataract surgery during the follow-up.
During a mean follow-up of 8.4 years, 995 participants underwent cataract surgery with a corresponding incidence of 12.4 cases per 1000 person-years. In all, 10.8% of participants were current smokers at baseline, 38.7% were former smokers, and 50.5% were never smokers. The incidence of cataract surgery was non-significantly higher in never-smoker compared to former or current smokers. Regression analysis showed no significant difference in cataract surgical risk among former, current, and never smokers. In addition, neither time since quitting of smoking nor age at quitting was associated with the risk of cataract surgery, although there was a marginally significant trend in a lower risk of cataract surgery with longer smoking cessation time for participant with normal weight (P for trend = 0.05).
Despite that smoking was found to be related to the cataract and cataract surgery in the general population, we did not find any association between smoking and cataract surgery in diabetic patients.