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Education, Activity Engagement, and Cognitive Function in US Chinese Older Adults.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2019; 67(S3):S525-S531JA

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To examine whether and how early-life experiences such as years of schooling affect late-life cognitive function through a pathway of activity engagement.

DESIGN

Prospective.

SETTING

We used data from 2 waves of the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE).

PARTICIPANTS

PINE is the largest population-based epidemiological study of Chinese-American adults aged 60 and older in the greater Chicago area. Wave 1 data were collected for 2 years, from July 2011 to June 2013, and Wave 2 data were collected from 2013 to 2015; total sample size was 2,713.

MEASUREMENTS

Education was measured in years of schooling. Activity engagement was assessed using 15 items grouped into two clusters: cognitive activity and social activity. Cognitive function was evaluated using five instruments to assess general mental status (Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination (C-MMSE)), episodic memory, perceptual speed, working memory, global cognition score.

RESULTS

Adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related control variables, education measured at Wave 1 was associated with better global cognition (b = 0.025, p < .001), C-MMSE (b = .037, p < .001), episodic memory (b = .026, p < .001), Symbol Digit Modalities Test perceptual speed (b = .036, p < .001), and Digit Span Backward working memory (b = .047, p < .001) at Wave 2. Activity engagement, cognitive activity in particular, significantly mediates the effect of education on all cognitive tests, with the size of the mediating effect ranging from 16% to approximately 24%.

CONCLUSION

Amount of schooling early in life is significantly related to late-life cognitive function in virtually all domains, and cognitive activity is one of many links between the two. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:S525-S531, 2019.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Sociology, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawaii.School of Social Work, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.Psychology Department, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio.Department of Sociology, Aging Studies Institute, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York.Department of Sociology, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawaii.Health Care Policy and Aging Research, Institute for Health, The State University of New Jersey, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31403195

Citation

Zhang, Wei, et al. "Education, Activity Engagement, and Cognitive Function in US Chinese Older Adults." Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 67, no. S3, 2019, pp. S525-S531.
Zhang W, Tang F, Chen Y, et al. Education, Activity Engagement, and Cognitive Function in US Chinese Older Adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2019;67(S3):S525-S531.
Zhang, W., Tang, F., Chen, Y., Silverstein, M., Liu, S., & Dong, X. (2019). Education, Activity Engagement, and Cognitive Function in US Chinese Older Adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 67(S3), pp. S525-S531. doi:10.1111/jgs.15560.
Zhang W, et al. Education, Activity Engagement, and Cognitive Function in US Chinese Older Adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2019;67(S3):S525-S531. PubMed PMID: 31403195.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Education, Activity Engagement, and Cognitive Function in US Chinese Older Adults. AU - Zhang,Wei, AU - Tang,Fengyan, AU - Chen,Yiwei, AU - Silverstein,Merril, AU - Liu,Sizhe, AU - Dong,XinQi, PY - 2018/01/27/received PY - 2018/06/25/revised PY - 2018/07/09/accepted PY - 2019/8/13/entrez KW - Chinese older adults KW - activity engagement KW - cognitive function KW - education SP - S525 EP - S531 JF - Journal of the American Geriatrics Society JO - J Am Geriatr Soc VL - 67 IS - S3 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To examine whether and how early-life experiences such as years of schooling affect late-life cognitive function through a pathway of activity engagement. DESIGN: Prospective. SETTING: We used data from 2 waves of the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE). PARTICIPANTS: PINE is the largest population-based epidemiological study of Chinese-American adults aged 60 and older in the greater Chicago area. Wave 1 data were collected for 2 years, from July 2011 to June 2013, and Wave 2 data were collected from 2013 to 2015; total sample size was 2,713. MEASUREMENTS: Education was measured in years of schooling. Activity engagement was assessed using 15 items grouped into two clusters: cognitive activity and social activity. Cognitive function was evaluated using five instruments to assess general mental status (Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination (C-MMSE)), episodic memory, perceptual speed, working memory, global cognition score. RESULTS: Adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related control variables, education measured at Wave 1 was associated with better global cognition (b = 0.025, p < .001), C-MMSE (b = .037, p < .001), episodic memory (b = .026, p < .001), Symbol Digit Modalities Test perceptual speed (b = .036, p < .001), and Digit Span Backward working memory (b = .047, p < .001) at Wave 2. Activity engagement, cognitive activity in particular, significantly mediates the effect of education on all cognitive tests, with the size of the mediating effect ranging from 16% to approximately 24%. CONCLUSION: Amount of schooling early in life is significantly related to late-life cognitive function in virtually all domains, and cognitive activity is one of many links between the two. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:S525-S531, 2019. SN - 1532-5415 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31403195/Education_Activity_Engagement_and_Cognitive_Function_in_US_Chinese_Older_Adults_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.15560 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -