[Appllication of human acellular dermal matrix in surgical treatment of genitourinary disease].Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2019; 51(4):778-782BD
Humanacellular dermal matrix (HADM) is widely used in the field of burn wound repair and tissue engineering plastic surgery. HADM is manufactored by physical and chemical decellular process to remove the antigenic components that might cause immune rejection in dermis.The extracellular matrix of three-dimensional cell scaffold structure with collagen fibers had been used for wound repair and tissue regeneration, while HADM characterized with low absorption rate after implantation and strong ability to induce angiogenesis in host tissue. Studies reported that after the HADM was implanted into the patient, the host cells, such as fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, as well as lymphocytes, macrophages, granulocytes and mast cells, rapidly infiltrated the graft. The connective tissue and neovascularization were then formed within the HADM three-dimensional cell scaffold, the lymphatic system also appears after vascular reconstruction. Traditional urethral reconstruction using autologous skin flaps has some defects, such as complexity of the technology, risk of necrosis of the skin flaps after transplantation, and failure to achieve functional repair of the urethral epithelium. It has been reported that using HADM to reconstruct the urethra in patients with urethral stricture, hypospadias and bladder-vaginal fistula, showed promising results. Others have reported the experience of using HADM to repair and reconstruct congenital classic bladder exstrophy. HADM has also been used for tissue repair in patients with penile skin defect caused by Fonier's gangrene and hidradenitis suppurativa, and implanted under Bucks' fascia to enlarge the penis. The report of HADM implantation for treating premature ejaculation also deserves attention. Researchers found that HADM implantation can form a tissue barrier between the skin and corpus cavernosum, which can effectively reduce penile sensitivity and treat premature ejaculation. The safety and effectiveness of HADM implantation in the treatment of premature ejaculation need to be further standardized by data from multi-center, large-sample clinical studies. In summary, HADM is the extracellular matrix and three-dimensional cell scaffold of human dermis. As a new type of tissue repair material, new blood vessels are formed actively after implantation, which shows good histocompatibility. HADM has shown increasingly broad application prospects in treatment of genitourinary diseases including penis, urethra and bladder diseases. HADM has also been used in the treatment of premature ejaculation in recent clinical studies, and its long-term safety and efficacy need to be further investigated.