Kinins in Glioblastoma Microenvironment.Cancer Microenviron 2019CM
Tumour progression involves interactions among various cancer cell clones, including the cancer stem cell subpopulation and exogenous cellular components, termed cancer stromal cells. The latter include a plethora of tumour infiltrating immunocompetent cells, among which are also immuno-modulatory mesenchymal stem cells, which by vigorous migration to growing tumours and susequent transdifferentiation into various types of tumour-residing stromal cells, may either inhibit or support tumour progression. In the light of the scarce therapeutic options existing for the most malignant brain tumour glioblastoma, mesenchymal stem cells may represent a promising novel tool for cell therapy, e.g. drug delivery vectors. Here, we review the increasing number of reports on mutual interactions between mesenchymal stem cells and glioblastoma cells in their microenvironment. We particularly point out two novel aspects: the different responses of cancer cells to their microenvironmental cues, and to the signalling by kinin receptors that complement the immuno-modulating cytokine-signalling networks. Inflammatory glioblastoma microenvironment is characterised by increasing expression of kinin receptors during progressive glioma malignancy, thus making kinin signalling and kinins themselves rather important in this context. In general, their role in tumour microenvironment has not been explored so far. In addition, kinins also regulate blood brain barrier-related drug transfer as well as brain tumour angiogenesis. These studies support the on-going research on kinin antagonists as candidates in the development of anti-invasive agents for adjuvant glioblastoma therapy.