Foramen of Winslow Hernia: a Review of the Literature Highlighting the Role of Laparoscopy.J Gastrointest Surg 2019; 23(10):2093-2099JG
Foramen of Winslow hernia (FWH) is an extremely rare entity accounting for up to 8% of internal hernias and 0.08% of all hernias. Only 150 cases of FWH have been described in the literature to date with a peak incidence between the third and sixth decades of life. Three main mechanisms seem to be implicated in the FWH pathogenesis: (a) excessive viscera mobility, (b) abnormal enlargement of the foramen of Winslow, and (c) changes in the intra-abdominal pressure. The presence of an abnormally long bowel, enlargement of the right liver lobe or cholecystectomy, a "wandering cecum," and defects of the gastrohepatic ligaments are some reported predisposing factors. Timely diagnosis through computed tomography facilitates the appropriate treatment before complications are evident. Although open repair has been mostly utilized, recently laparoscopic approach seems to gain ground due to the encouraging preliminary results. To date, the debate continues as to whether prophylactic measures to prevent recurrence of the FWH need to be undertaken: closure of the foramen, fixation of the highly mobilized viscera, or both.