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Childhood pneumonia in low-and-middle-income countries: An update.
Paediatr Respir Rev. 2019 Nov; 32:3-9.PR

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To review epidemiology, aetiology and management of childhood pneumonia in low-and-middle-income countries.

DESIGN

Review of published English literature between 2013 and 2019.

RESULTS

Pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Risk factors include young age, malnutrition, immunosuppression, tobacco smoke or air pollution exposure. Better methods for specimen collection and molecular diagnostics have improved microbiological diagnosis, indicating that pneumonia results from several organisms interacting. Induced sputum increases microbiologic yield for Bordetella pertussis or Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which has been associated with pneumonia in high TB prevalence areas. The proportion of cases due to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae b has declined with new conjugate vaccines; Staphylococcus aureus and H. influenzae non-type b are the commonest bacterial pathogens; viruses are the most common pathogens. Effective interventions comprise antibiotics, oxygen and non-invasive ventilation. New vaccines have reduced severity and incidence of disease, but disparities exist in uptake.

CONCLUSION

Morbidity and mortality from childhood pneumonia has decreased but a considerable preventable burden remains. Widespread implementation of available, effective interventions and development of novel strategies are needed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; Department of Paediatrics and Child Health and SA Medical Research Council Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.Department of Paediatrics and Child Health and SA Medical Research Council Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address: heather.zar@uct.ac.za.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31422032

Citation

Marangu, Diana, and Heather J. Zar. "Childhood Pneumonia in Low-and-middle-income Countries: an Update." Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, vol. 32, 2019, pp. 3-9.
Marangu D, Zar HJ. Childhood pneumonia in low-and-middle-income countries: An update. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2019;32:3-9.
Marangu, D., & Zar, H. J. (2019). Childhood pneumonia in low-and-middle-income countries: An update. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 32, 3-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prrv.2019.06.001
Marangu D, Zar HJ. Childhood Pneumonia in Low-and-middle-income Countries: an Update. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2019;32:3-9. PubMed PMID: 31422032.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Childhood pneumonia in low-and-middle-income countries: An update. AU - Marangu,Diana, AU - Zar,Heather J, Y1 - 2019/06/26/ PY - 2019/06/18/received PY - 2019/06/18/accepted PY - 2019/8/20/pubmed PY - 2020/5/14/medline PY - 2019/8/19/entrez KW - Aetiology KW - Epidemiology KW - Lower respiratory tract infection KW - Management KW - Prevention SP - 3 EP - 9 JF - Paediatric respiratory reviews JO - Paediatr Respir Rev VL - 32 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To review epidemiology, aetiology and management of childhood pneumonia in low-and-middle-income countries. DESIGN: Review of published English literature between 2013 and 2019. RESULTS: Pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Risk factors include young age, malnutrition, immunosuppression, tobacco smoke or air pollution exposure. Better methods for specimen collection and molecular diagnostics have improved microbiological diagnosis, indicating that pneumonia results from several organisms interacting. Induced sputum increases microbiologic yield for Bordetella pertussis or Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which has been associated with pneumonia in high TB prevalence areas. The proportion of cases due to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae b has declined with new conjugate vaccines; Staphylococcus aureus and H. influenzae non-type b are the commonest bacterial pathogens; viruses are the most common pathogens. Effective interventions comprise antibiotics, oxygen and non-invasive ventilation. New vaccines have reduced severity and incidence of disease, but disparities exist in uptake. CONCLUSION: Morbidity and mortality from childhood pneumonia has decreased but a considerable preventable burden remains. Widespread implementation of available, effective interventions and development of novel strategies are needed. SN - 1526-0550 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31422032/Childhood_pneumonia_in_low_and_middle_income_countries:_An_update_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1526-0542(19)30059-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -