Metal(loid)s inhalation bioaccessibility and oxidative potential of particulate matter from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-contaminated soils.Chemosphere 2019; 238:124557C
Field-collected chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-contaminated soils and associated particulate matter (PM) were characterized for their total metal(loid)s content (As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and physicochemical properties. Copper, Ni, Pb and Zn fractionation (using sequential extraction) and inhalation bioaccessibility (using two lung fluids) of trace elements were assessed in PM samples. In Gamble's solution (GS), low average bioaccessibility (up to 12%) was observed for As, Cu, Mn, and Ni. A strong correlation (r = 0.92, p < 0.005, n = 9) between the soluble and exchangeable fraction (F1) and bioaccessibility in GS was observed for Cu. Inhalation bioaccessibility in artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) was higher for Cu (avg. 78.5 ± 4.2%), Mn (avg. 56.8 ± 12.1%), Zn (avg. 54.8 ± 24.5%) and As (avg. 45.4 ± 18.8%). Strong correlations between inhalation bioaccessibility in ALF and the mobile (i.e. F1+F2) metal fraction were observed for all tested metals (i.e. (Cu (r = 0.95, p < 0.005), Ni (r = 0.79, p < 0.05), Pb (r = 0.92, p < 0.005) and Zn (r = 0.98, p < 0.005)), n = 9). The oxidative potential (OP) of PM was also assessed using an ascorbate (AA) depletion assay (OPAA). Mobile Cu fractions were deemed to be the main factor influencing OPAA ((F1 (r = 0.99, p < 0.005), F2 (r = 0.97, p < 0.005)), n = 9) in PM samples. A strong correlation (r = 0.94, p < 0.005, n = 10) was also observed between Cu bioaccessibility in GS and OPAA.