Early Postnatal Exposure to Paraquat and Maneb in Mice Increases Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Susceptibility to a Re-challenge with the Same Pesticides at Adulthood: Implications for Parkinson's Disease.Neurotox Res. 2020 Jan; 37(1):210-226.NR
Exposure to environmental contaminants represents an important etiological factor in sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). It has been reported that PD could arise from events that occur early in development and that lead to delayed adverse consequences in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system at adult life. We investigated the occurrence of late nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity induced by exposures to the pesticides paraquat (PQ) and maneb (MB) during the early postnatal period in mice, as well as whether the exposure to pesticides during development could enhance mice vulnerability to subsequent challenges. Male Swiss mice were exposed to a combination of 0.3 mg/kg PQ and 1.0 mg/kg MB (PQ + MB) from postnatal (PN) day 5 to 19. PN exposure to pesticides neither induced mortally nor modified motor-related parameters. However, PN pesticides exposure decreased the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)- and dopamine transporter (DAT)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), as well as reduced TH and DAT immunoreactivity in the striatum. A parallel group of animals developmentally exposed to the pesticides was re-challenged at 3 months of age with 10 mg/kg PQ plus 30 mg/kg MB (twice a week, 6 weeks). Mice exposed to pesticides at both periods (PN + adulthood) presented motor deficits and reductions in the number of TH- and DAT-positive neurons in the SNpc. These findings indicate that the exposure to PQ + MB during the early PN period can cause neurotoxicity in the mouse nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, rendering it more susceptible to a subsequent adult re-challenge with the same pesticides.