Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Routine monitoring of gastric residual for prevention of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019; 7:CD012937CD

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Routine monitoring of gastric residual in preterm infants on gavage feeds is a common practice that is used to guide initiation and advancement of feeds. Some literature suggests that an increase in/or an altered gastric residual may be predictive of necrotising enterocolitis. Withholding monitoring of gastric residual may take away the early indicator and thus may increase the risk of necrotising enterocolitis. However, routine monitoring of gastric residual as a guide, in the absence of uniform standards, may lead to unnecessary delay in initiation and advancement of feeds and delay in reaching full enteral feeds. This in turn may increase the duration of parenteral nutrition and central venous line usage, increasing their complications. Delay in achieving full enteral feeds increases the risk of extrauterine growth restriction and neurodevelopmental impairment.

OBJECTIVES

• To assess the efficacy and safety of routine monitoring of gastric residual versus no monitoring of gastric residual in preterm infants• To assess the efficacy and safety of routine monitoring of gastric residual based on two different criteria for interrupting feeds or decreasing feed volume in preterm infantsWe planned to undertake subgroup analysis based on gestational age (≤ 27 weeks, 28 weeks to 31 weeks, ≥ 32 weeks), birth weight (< 1000 g, 1000 g to 1499 g, ≥ 1500 g), small for gestational age versus appropriate for gestational age infants (classified using birth weight relative to the reference population), type of feed the infant is receiving (human milk or formula milk), and frequency of monitoring of gastric residual (before every feed, before every third feed, etc.) (see "Subgroup analysis and investigation of heterogeneity").

SEARCH METHODS

We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 1), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 19 February 2018), Embase (1980 to 19 February 2018), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 19 February 2018). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials.

SELECTION CRITERIA

We selected randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared routine monitoring of gastric residual versus no monitoring or two different criteria of gastric residual to interrupt feeds in preterm infants.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

Two review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and independently extracted data. We analysed treatment effects in individual trials and reported the risk ratio and the risk difference for dichotomous data, and the mean difference for continuous data, with respective 95% confidence intervals. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence.

MAIN RESULTS

Two randomised controlled trials with a total of 141 preterm infants met the inclusion criteria for the comparison of routine monitoring versus no monitoring of gastric residual in preterm infants. Both trials were done in infants with birth weight < 1500 g.Routine monitoring of gastric residual may have little or no effect on the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis (risk ratio (RR) 3.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50 to 18.77; participants = 141; studies = 2; low-quality evidence). Routine monitoring may increase the risk of feed interruption episodes (RR 2.07, 95% CI 1.39 to 3.07; participants = 141; studies = 2; low-quality evidence); the number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) was 3 (95% CI 2 to 6).Routine monitoring of gastric residual may increase time taken to establish full enteral feeds (mean difference (MD) 3.92, 95% CI 2.06 to 5.77 days; participants = 141; studies = 2; low-quality evidence), time taken to regain birth weight (MD 1.70, 95% CI 0.01 to 3.39 days; participants = 80; studies = 1; low-quality evidence), and number of total parenteral nutrition days (MD 3.29, 95% CI 1.66 to 4.92 days; participants = 141; studies = 2; low-quality evidence).We are uncertain as to the effect of routine monitoring of gastric residual on other outcomes such as incidence of surgical necrotising enterocolitis, extrauterine growth restriction at discharge, parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, duration of central venous line (CVL) usage, incidence of invasive infection, mortality before discharge, and duration of hospital stay. We found no data for outcomes such as aspiration pneumonia, gastroesophageal reflux, growth measures following discharge, and neurodevelopmental outcome.Only one trial with 87 preterm infants met the inclusion criteria for the comparison of using two different criteria of gastric residual to interrupt feeds while monitoring gastric residual. The trial was done in infants with birth weight of 1500 to 2000 g. We are uncertain as to the effect of using two different criteria of gastric residual on outcomes such as incidence of necrotising enterocolitis or surgical necrotising enterocolitis, time to establish full enteral feeds, time to regain birth weight, number of total parenteral nutrition days, number of infants experiencing feed interruption episodes, extrauterine growth restriction at discharge, parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, incidence of invasive infection, and mortality before discharge (very low quality evidence). We found no data on duration of CVL usage, aspiration pneumonia, gastroesophageal reflux, duration of hospital stay, growth measures following discharge, and neurodevelopmental outcome.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS

Review authors found insufficient evidence as to whether routine monitoring of gastric residual reduces the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis because trial results are imprecise. Low-quality evidence suggests that routine monitoring of gastric residual increases the risk of feed interruption episodes, increases the time taken to reach full enteral feeds and to regain birth weight, and increases the number of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) days.Available data are insufficient to comment on other major outcomes such as incidence of invasive infection, parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, mortality before discharge, extrauterine growth restriction at discharge, number of CVL days, and duration of hospital stay. Further randomised controlled trials are warranted to provide more precise estimates of the effects of routine monitoring of gastric residual on important outcomes, especially necrotising enterocolitis, in preterm infants.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Neonatology, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31425604

Citation

Abiramalatha, Thangaraj, et al. "Routine Monitoring of Gastric Residual for Prevention of Necrotising Enterocolitis in Preterm Infants." The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 7, 2019, p. CD012937.
Abiramalatha T, Thanigainathan S, Ninan B. Routine monitoring of gastric residual for prevention of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019;7:CD012937.
Abiramalatha, T., Thanigainathan, S., & Ninan, B. (2019). Routine monitoring of gastric residual for prevention of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 7, p. CD012937. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012937.pub2.
Abiramalatha T, Thanigainathan S, Ninan B. Routine Monitoring of Gastric Residual for Prevention of Necrotising Enterocolitis in Preterm Infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jul 9;7:CD012937. PubMed PMID: 31425604.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Routine monitoring of gastric residual for prevention of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants. AU - Abiramalatha,Thangaraj, AU - Thanigainathan,Sivam, AU - Ninan,Binu, Y1 - 2019/07/09/ PY - 2020/07/09/pmc-release PY - 2019/8/20/entrez PY - 2019/8/20/pubmed PY - 2019/8/20/medline SP - CD012937 EP - CD012937 JF - The Cochrane database of systematic reviews JO - Cochrane Database Syst Rev VL - 7 N2 - BACKGROUND: Routine monitoring of gastric residual in preterm infants on gavage feeds is a common practice that is used to guide initiation and advancement of feeds. Some literature suggests that an increase in/or an altered gastric residual may be predictive of necrotising enterocolitis. Withholding monitoring of gastric residual may take away the early indicator and thus may increase the risk of necrotising enterocolitis. However, routine monitoring of gastric residual as a guide, in the absence of uniform standards, may lead to unnecessary delay in initiation and advancement of feeds and delay in reaching full enteral feeds. This in turn may increase the duration of parenteral nutrition and central venous line usage, increasing their complications. Delay in achieving full enteral feeds increases the risk of extrauterine growth restriction and neurodevelopmental impairment. OBJECTIVES: • To assess the efficacy and safety of routine monitoring of gastric residual versus no monitoring of gastric residual in preterm infants• To assess the efficacy and safety of routine monitoring of gastric residual based on two different criteria for interrupting feeds or decreasing feed volume in preterm infantsWe planned to undertake subgroup analysis based on gestational age (≤ 27 weeks, 28 weeks to 31 weeks, ≥ 32 weeks), birth weight (< 1000 g, 1000 g to 1499 g, ≥ 1500 g), small for gestational age versus appropriate for gestational age infants (classified using birth weight relative to the reference population), type of feed the infant is receiving (human milk or formula milk), and frequency of monitoring of gastric residual (before every feed, before every third feed, etc.) (see "Subgroup analysis and investigation of heterogeneity"). SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 1), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 19 February 2018), Embase (1980 to 19 February 2018), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 19 February 2018). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We selected randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared routine monitoring of gastric residual versus no monitoring or two different criteria of gastric residual to interrupt feeds in preterm infants. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and independently extracted data. We analysed treatment effects in individual trials and reported the risk ratio and the risk difference for dichotomous data, and the mean difference for continuous data, with respective 95% confidence intervals. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Two randomised controlled trials with a total of 141 preterm infants met the inclusion criteria for the comparison of routine monitoring versus no monitoring of gastric residual in preterm infants. Both trials were done in infants with birth weight < 1500 g.Routine monitoring of gastric residual may have little or no effect on the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis (risk ratio (RR) 3.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50 to 18.77; participants = 141; studies = 2; low-quality evidence). Routine monitoring may increase the risk of feed interruption episodes (RR 2.07, 95% CI 1.39 to 3.07; participants = 141; studies = 2; low-quality evidence); the number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) was 3 (95% CI 2 to 6).Routine monitoring of gastric residual may increase time taken to establish full enteral feeds (mean difference (MD) 3.92, 95% CI 2.06 to 5.77 days; participants = 141; studies = 2; low-quality evidence), time taken to regain birth weight (MD 1.70, 95% CI 0.01 to 3.39 days; participants = 80; studies = 1; low-quality evidence), and number of total parenteral nutrition days (MD 3.29, 95% CI 1.66 to 4.92 days; participants = 141; studies = 2; low-quality evidence).We are uncertain as to the effect of routine monitoring of gastric residual on other outcomes such as incidence of surgical necrotising enterocolitis, extrauterine growth restriction at discharge, parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, duration of central venous line (CVL) usage, incidence of invasive infection, mortality before discharge, and duration of hospital stay. We found no data for outcomes such as aspiration pneumonia, gastroesophageal reflux, growth measures following discharge, and neurodevelopmental outcome.Only one trial with 87 preterm infants met the inclusion criteria for the comparison of using two different criteria of gastric residual to interrupt feeds while monitoring gastric residual. The trial was done in infants with birth weight of 1500 to 2000 g. We are uncertain as to the effect of using two different criteria of gastric residual on outcomes such as incidence of necrotising enterocolitis or surgical necrotising enterocolitis, time to establish full enteral feeds, time to regain birth weight, number of total parenteral nutrition days, number of infants experiencing feed interruption episodes, extrauterine growth restriction at discharge, parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, incidence of invasive infection, and mortality before discharge (very low quality evidence). We found no data on duration of CVL usage, aspiration pneumonia, gastroesophageal reflux, duration of hospital stay, growth measures following discharge, and neurodevelopmental outcome. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Review authors found insufficient evidence as to whether routine monitoring of gastric residual reduces the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis because trial results are imprecise. Low-quality evidence suggests that routine monitoring of gastric residual increases the risk of feed interruption episodes, increases the time taken to reach full enteral feeds and to regain birth weight, and increases the number of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) days.Available data are insufficient to comment on other major outcomes such as incidence of invasive infection, parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, mortality before discharge, extrauterine growth restriction at discharge, number of CVL days, and duration of hospital stay. Further randomised controlled trials are warranted to provide more precise estimates of the effects of routine monitoring of gastric residual on important outcomes, especially necrotising enterocolitis, in preterm infants. SN - 1469-493X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31425604/Routine_monitoring_of_gastric_residual_for_prevention_of_necrotising_enterocolitis_in_preterm_infants L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012937.pub2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -