Preinjury Statins Are Associated With Improved Survival in Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury.J Surg Res 2019; 245:367-372JS
Statins have been shown to improve outcomes in traumatic brain injury (TBI) in animal models. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of preinjury statins on outcomes in TBI patients.
We performed a 4-y (2014-2017) review of our TBI database and included all patients aged ≥18 y with severe isolated TBI. Patients were stratified into those who were on statins and those who were not and were matched (1:2 ratio) using propensity score matching. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. The secondary outcomes were skilled nursing facility disposition, Glasgow Outcome Scale-extended score, and hospital and intensive care unit length of stay (LOS).
We identified 1359 patients, of which 270 were matched (statin: 90, no-statin: 180). Mean age was 55 ± 8y, median Glasgow Coma Scale was 10 (8-12), and median head-abbreviated injury scale was 3 (3-5). Matched groups were similar in age, mechanism of injury, Glasgow Coma Scale, Injury Severity Score, neurosurgical intervention, type and size of intracranial hemorrhage, and preinjury anticoagulant or antiplatelet use. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 18%. Patients who received statins had lower rates of in-hospital mortality (11% versus 21%, P = 0.01), skilled nursing facility disposition (19% versus 28%; P = 0.04), and a higher median Glasgow Outcome Scale-extended (11 [9-13] versus 9 [8-10]; P = 0.04). No differences were found between the two groups in terms of hospital LOS (6 [4-9] versus 5 [3-8]; P = 0.34) and intensive care unit LOS (3 [3-6] versus 4 [3-5]; P = 0.09).
Preinjury statin use in isolated traumatic brain injury patients is associated with improved outcomes. This finding warrants further investigations to evaluate the potential beneficial role of statins as a therapeutic drug in a TBI.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE
Level III Therapeutic.