Urinary metabolites of organophosphate esters and implications for exposure pathways in adolescents from Eastern China.Sci Total Environ 2019; 695:133894ST
Ten urinary biomarkers of organophosphate esters (OPEs) from six parent OPEs were analyzed in urine from adolescents students in Eastern China. Bis (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, urinary biomarker of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), was detected in all urine samples with the highest residual concentration of 6.2 ng/mL (median). Bis (1-chloro-propyl) hydroxyl-2-propyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, biomarkers of tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), respectively, and tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), were also frequently detected with median concentrations of 1.5, 2.6 and 0.3 ng/mL, respectively. Results indicate that exposure to OPEs, in particular to TDCIPP, TNBP, TCIPP and TCEP, was highly prevalent for adolescent students. The exposure pathways of OPEs were then evaluated according to the OPE internal body burdens (IBBs). Three pathways were identified as the main pathways for adolescents exposed to OPEs including dermal absorption, oral intake of food and dust and inhalation.