Management of complex gout in clinical practice: Update on therapeutic approaches.Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2018; 32(6):813-834BP
Increasing therapeutic options are available for gout management. Anti-inflammatory agents are used in the acute management of gout flares, and interleukin-1 inhibitors are effective for those unable to take conventional anti-inflammatory treatments. Lowering of serum urate remains the cornerstone of effective long-term management. Allopurinol is the first-line urate-lowering therapy, and a gradual dose-escalation strategy to serum urate target is recommended. Febuxostat and lesinurad have been approved more recently. In a large cardiovascular outcomes trial, higher all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was observed with febuxostat than with allopurinol. Lesinurad should be co-prescribed with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, and close monitoring of kidney function is required. Evidence for non-pharmacological management is limited, but personalised lifestyle modification may reduce associated cardiovascular risk. In this review, we discuss current principles in the gout management paradigm, consider strategies for managing complex, clinical scenarios, and review emerging therapies.