Clinical implications of extracellular vesicles in neurodegenerative diseases.Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2019 09; 19(9):813-824.ER
Introduction: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by neural cells play a crucial role in intracellular communication in both physiological and pathological states. Recent studies have shown that the neuropathogenic manifestation of many progressive nervous system diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's diseases (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These diseases are frequently found to be associated with the accumulation of misfolded proteins, exploit EVs for the spread of aggregates to naive cells in a prion-like mechanism. Therefore, characterization of EVs and understanding their mechanism of action could open a window of opportunity to discover biomarkers and therapeutic targets in a disease-specific manner. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss the role of neural cells-derived EVs in normal and disease states. We also highlight their biomedical potential in modern medicine, including the use of circulating EVs as biomarkers for diagnosis with a special focus on newly-identified potential biomarkers in neurodegenerative disease, and novel methodologies in EVs isolation. Expert opinion: Systematic and comprehensive analysis of EVs in different biofluid sources is needed. Considering the potential for tremendous clinical benefits of EVs research in neurodegenerative disease, there is also an urgent need to standardize neural cells-derived EV enrichment protocols for consensus results.