Assessment and validation of a Spanish version of the Muscle Dysmorphia Disorder Inventory in Argentinian men who exercise: Inventario de Dismorfia Muscular.Body Image. 2019 Dec; 31:24-34.BI
Despite an increase in body dissatisfaction and muscularity concerns among Latin American men, there is a paucity of research relating to muscle dysmorphia in this population. In this study we aimed to evaluate, for the first time in Latin America, the factor structure of the Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory (MDDI; Hildebrandt, Langenbucher, & Schlundt, 2004). A sample of 551 men who exercise completed measures of body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and the MDDI. Exploratory factor analysis in a first split-half sample revealed a 3-factor solution similar to the original version, which was then tested through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in a second split-half sample. A re-specified model (allowing for error correlations between Items 10-13 and 11-13) presented adequate fit. Omega coefficients revealed adequate internal consistency (> .80) for the Drive for Size and Functional Impairment subscales. The internal consistency for the Appearance Intolerance subscale was .74 and .72 across subset samples. Associations with body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, body mass index, and frequency of training and rest days are presented as evidence of construct validity. Finally, multi-group CFA indicated that the model was invariant across type of exercise. Overall, these data suggest that the MDDI is suitable for use in Spanish-speaking Latin American male populations.