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Smoldering and flaming biomass wood smoke inhibit respiratory responses in mice.
Inhal Toxicol 2019; 31(6):236-247IT

Abstract

Background:

Acute and chronic exposures to biomass wildfire smoke pose significant health risks to firefighters and impacted communities. Susceptible populations such as asthmatics may be particularly sensitive to wildfire effects. We examined pulmonary responses to biomass smoke generated from combustion of peat, oak, or eucalyptus in control and house dust mite (HDM)-allergic mice.

Methods:

Mice were exposed 1 h/d for 2 consecutive days to emissions from each fuel type under smoldering or flaming conditions (∼40 or ∼3.3 mg PM/m3, respectively) while maintaining comparable CO levels (∼60-120 ppm).

Results:

Control and allergic mice reduced breathing frequency during exposure to all biomass emissions compared with pre-exposure to clean air. Smoldering eucalyptus and oak, but not peat, further reduced frequency compared to flaming conditions in control and allergic groups, while also reducing minute volume and peak inspiratory flow in control mice. Several biochemical and cellular markers of lung injury and inflammation were suppressed by all biomass emission types in both HDM-allergic and control mice. Control mice exposed to flaming eucalyptus at different PM concentrations (C) and times (T) with the same C × T product had a greater decrease in breathing frequency with high concentration acute exposure compared with lower concentration episodic exposure. This decrease was ameliorated by PM HEPA filtration, indicating that the respiratory changes were partially mediated by biomass smoke particles.

Conclusion:

These data show that exposure to smoldering eucalyptus or oak smoke inhibits respiratory responses to a greater degree than peat smoke. Anti-inflammatory effects of CO may possibly contribute to smoke-induced suppression of allergic inflammatory responses.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education , Research Triangle Park , NC , USA.National Research Council , Washington , DC , USA.National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency , Research Triangle Park , NC , USA.National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency , Research Triangle Park , NC , USA.National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency , Research Triangle Park , NC , USA.National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency , Research Triangle Park , NC , USA.National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency , Research Triangle Park , NC , USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31431109

Citation

Hargrove, Marie McGee, et al. "Smoldering and Flaming Biomass Wood Smoke Inhibit Respiratory Responses in Mice." Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 31, no. 6, 2019, pp. 236-247.
Hargrove MM, Kim YH, King C, et al. Smoldering and flaming biomass wood smoke inhibit respiratory responses in mice. Inhal Toxicol. 2019;31(6):236-247.
Hargrove, M. M., Kim, Y. H., King, C., Wood, C. E., Gilmour, M. I., Dye, J. A., & Gavett, S. H. (2019). Smoldering and flaming biomass wood smoke inhibit respiratory responses in mice. Inhalation Toxicology, 31(6), pp. 236-247. doi:10.1080/08958378.2019.1654046.
Hargrove MM, et al. Smoldering and Flaming Biomass Wood Smoke Inhibit Respiratory Responses in Mice. Inhal Toxicol. 2019;31(6):236-247. PubMed PMID: 31431109.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Smoldering and flaming biomass wood smoke inhibit respiratory responses in mice. AU - Hargrove,Marie McGee, AU - Kim,Yong Ho, AU - King,Charly, AU - Wood,Charles E, AU - Gilmour,M Ian, AU - Dye,Janice A, AU - Gavett,Stephen H, Y1 - 2019/08/20/ PY - 2019/8/23/pubmed PY - 2019/8/23/medline PY - 2019/8/22/entrez KW - Wood smoke KW - asthma KW - biomass burning KW - lung inflammation KW - pulmonary function SP - 236 EP - 247 JF - Inhalation toxicology JO - Inhal Toxicol VL - 31 IS - 6 N2 - Background: Acute and chronic exposures to biomass wildfire smoke pose significant health risks to firefighters and impacted communities. Susceptible populations such as asthmatics may be particularly sensitive to wildfire effects. We examined pulmonary responses to biomass smoke generated from combustion of peat, oak, or eucalyptus in control and house dust mite (HDM)-allergic mice. Methods: Mice were exposed 1 h/d for 2 consecutive days to emissions from each fuel type under smoldering or flaming conditions (∼40 or ∼3.3 mg PM/m3, respectively) while maintaining comparable CO levels (∼60-120 ppm). Results: Control and allergic mice reduced breathing frequency during exposure to all biomass emissions compared with pre-exposure to clean air. Smoldering eucalyptus and oak, but not peat, further reduced frequency compared to flaming conditions in control and allergic groups, while also reducing minute volume and peak inspiratory flow in control mice. Several biochemical and cellular markers of lung injury and inflammation were suppressed by all biomass emission types in both HDM-allergic and control mice. Control mice exposed to flaming eucalyptus at different PM concentrations (C) and times (T) with the same C × T product had a greater decrease in breathing frequency with high concentration acute exposure compared with lower concentration episodic exposure. This decrease was ameliorated by PM HEPA filtration, indicating that the respiratory changes were partially mediated by biomass smoke particles. Conclusion: These data show that exposure to smoldering eucalyptus or oak smoke inhibits respiratory responses to a greater degree than peat smoke. Anti-inflammatory effects of CO may possibly contribute to smoke-induced suppression of allergic inflammatory responses. SN - 1091-7691 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31431109/Smoldering_and_flaming_biomass_wood_smoke_inhibit_respiratory_responses_in_mice L2 - http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08958378.2019.1654046 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -