Prevention of Opportunistic Infections in Women With HIV Infection.Clin Obstet Gynecol 2019; 62(4):816-822CO
Opportunistic infections are those that are either more frequent or more severe as a result of the patient's immunosuppressed condition. Opportunistic infections are, of course, the distinguishing feature of HIV infection, and they can be the cause of serious morbidity and even mortality. Some opportunistic infections can be prevented by vaccination, for example, pneumococcal infection, meningococcal infection, influenza, hepatitis A and B, and varicella. Other major opportunistic infections require prophylactic antibiotics or antiviral medications. In obstetric patients, pneumocystis infections and toxoplasmosis are most effectively prevented by the administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The most effective agents for prevention of reactivation of tuberculosis are isoniazid, rifampin, and rifapentine. Fluconazole is of value in preventing cryptococcal infection and candidiasis. Acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famiclovir are effective in preventing recurrent outbreaks of herpes simplex virus. Ultimately; however, the best way to prevent opportunistic infections is to treat the patient with highly active antiretroviral agents and restore her immune competence.