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Sensory evaluation of e-liquid flavors by smelling and vaping yields similar results.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Sensory research on e-liquid flavors can be performed by means of smelling and vaping. However, data comparing smelling versus vaping e-liquid flavors is lacking. This study aims to investigate if smelling could be an alternative to vaping experiments by determining the correlation for hedonic flavor assessment between orthonasal smelling and vaping of e-liquids, for smokers and non-smokers.

METHODS

Twenty-four young adult smokers (mean age 24.8±9.3) and twenty-four non-smokers (mean age 24.9±7.7) smelled and vaped 25 e-liquids in various flavors. Participants rated liking, intensity, familiarity, and irritation on a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale. Pearson correlations within and between smelling and vaping were calculated. Differences between user groups were calculated using t-tests.

RESULTS

Correlation coefficients between smelling and vaping based on mean group ratings were 0.84 for liking, 0.82 for intensity, 0.84 for familiarity, and 0.73 for irritation. Means of the within-subjects correlation coefficients were respectively 0.51, 0.37, 0.47, and 0.25. Correlations between smelling and vaping varied across individuals (ranging from -0.27 to 0.87) and flavors (-0.33 to 0.81). Correlations and mean liking ratings did not differ between smokers and non-smokers.

CONCLUSIONS

The strong group-level correlations between orthonasal smelling and vaping e-liquid flavors justify the use of smelling instead of vaping in future research. For example, smelling could be used to investigate differences in e-liquid flavor liking between (potential) user groups such as nicotine-naïve adolescents. The more modest within-subject correlations and variation across individuals and flavors merit caution in using smelling instead of vaping in other types of experiments.

IMPLICATIONS

This study supports the use of orthonasal smelling (instead of vaping) e-liquids to measure hedonic flavor perception in some studies where vaping would be inappropriate or not feasible. Examples of research situations where smelling e-liquids may be sufficient are (1) investigating nicotine-naïve individuals (i.e. non-users), (2) investigating individuals under legal age for e-cigarette use (i.e. youth and adolescents), (3) investigating brain responses to exposure of e-liquid flavors using fMRI or EEG, and (4) comparing hedonic flavor assessment between adolescent non-users and current smokers to provide support for future regulations on e-liquid flavors.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan, MA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, Stippeneng, WE Wageningen, The Netherlands.Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, Stippeneng, WE Wageningen, The Netherlands.Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan, MA Bilthoven, The Netherlands.Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, Stippeneng, WE Wageningen, The Netherlands.Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan, MA Bilthoven, The Netherlands.Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, Stippeneng, WE Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31437266

Citation

Krüsemann, Erna J Z., et al. "Sensory Evaluation of E-liquid Flavors By Smelling and Vaping Yields Similar Results." Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research On Nicotine and Tobacco, 2019.
Krüsemann EJZ, Wenng FM, Pennings JLA, et al. Sensory evaluation of e-liquid flavors by smelling and vaping yields similar results. Nicotine Tob Res. 2019.
Krüsemann, E. J. Z., Wenng, F. M., Pennings, J. L. A., de Graaf, K., Talhout, R., & Boesveldt, S. (2019). Sensory evaluation of e-liquid flavors by smelling and vaping yields similar results. Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research On Nicotine and Tobacco, doi:10.1093/ntr/ntz155.
Krüsemann EJZ, et al. Sensory Evaluation of E-liquid Flavors By Smelling and Vaping Yields Similar Results. Nicotine Tob Res. 2019 Aug 22; PubMed PMID: 31437266.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Sensory evaluation of e-liquid flavors by smelling and vaping yields similar results. AU - Krüsemann,Erna J Z, AU - Wenng,Franziska M, AU - Pennings,Jeroen L A, AU - de Graaf,Kees, AU - Talhout,Reinskje, AU - Boesveldt,Sanne, Y1 - 2019/08/22/ PY - 2019/05/03/received PY - 2019/8/23/entrez PY - 2019/8/23/pubmed PY - 2019/8/23/medline KW - electronic cigarettes KW - flavors KW - hedonics KW - liking KW - smellsss JF - Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco JO - Nicotine Tob. Res. N2 - INTRODUCTION: Sensory research on e-liquid flavors can be performed by means of smelling and vaping. However, data comparing smelling versus vaping e-liquid flavors is lacking. This study aims to investigate if smelling could be an alternative to vaping experiments by determining the correlation for hedonic flavor assessment between orthonasal smelling and vaping of e-liquids, for smokers and non-smokers. METHODS: Twenty-four young adult smokers (mean age 24.8±9.3) and twenty-four non-smokers (mean age 24.9±7.7) smelled and vaped 25 e-liquids in various flavors. Participants rated liking, intensity, familiarity, and irritation on a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale. Pearson correlations within and between smelling and vaping were calculated. Differences between user groups were calculated using t-tests. RESULTS: Correlation coefficients between smelling and vaping based on mean group ratings were 0.84 for liking, 0.82 for intensity, 0.84 for familiarity, and 0.73 for irritation. Means of the within-subjects correlation coefficients were respectively 0.51, 0.37, 0.47, and 0.25. Correlations between smelling and vaping varied across individuals (ranging from -0.27 to 0.87) and flavors (-0.33 to 0.81). Correlations and mean liking ratings did not differ between smokers and non-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The strong group-level correlations between orthonasal smelling and vaping e-liquid flavors justify the use of smelling instead of vaping in future research. For example, smelling could be used to investigate differences in e-liquid flavor liking between (potential) user groups such as nicotine-naïve adolescents. The more modest within-subject correlations and variation across individuals and flavors merit caution in using smelling instead of vaping in other types of experiments. IMPLICATIONS: This study supports the use of orthonasal smelling (instead of vaping) e-liquids to measure hedonic flavor perception in some studies where vaping would be inappropriate or not feasible. Examples of research situations where smelling e-liquids may be sufficient are (1) investigating nicotine-naïve individuals (i.e. non-users), (2) investigating individuals under legal age for e-cigarette use (i.e. youth and adolescents), (3) investigating brain responses to exposure of e-liquid flavors using fMRI or EEG, and (4) comparing hedonic flavor assessment between adolescent non-users and current smokers to provide support for future regulations on e-liquid flavors. SN - 1469-994X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31437266/Sensory_evaluation_of_e-liquid_flavors_by_smelling_and_vaping_yields_similar_results L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ntr/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ntr/ntz155 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -