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Toxicological, gene expression and histopathological evaluations of environmentally realistic concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDE- 47, PBDE-99 and PBDE-209 on zebrafish embryos.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019; 183:109566EE

Abstract

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are brominated flame retardants. Biomonitoring studies have shown widespread presence of PBDEs in humans and their accumulation in food chain cause concern to human health, especially for foetus and infant development. The early-life stages are generally considered more sensitive to exposure to toxic compounds than juvenile or adults. For this reason the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the three most environmentally relevant BDE (BDE- 47, 99 and 209) on zebrafish embryos. The fish embryo toxicity (FET) OECD tests on zebrafish were performed followed by histopathogical examination to assess morphological changes. The gene expression of the thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ), the transport proteins transthyretin (Ttr) and thyroxine-binding globulin (Tbg) as well as the enzyme iodothyronine deiodinase 1 (Dio1) was also assessed by Real-time PCR. BDE-47 and BDE-99 showed an increase of the severity of the effects at the lower concentrations while for the BDE-209 the effects were higher to the high concentrations. Although all compounds did not show any acute toxicity for none of the concentrations tested, they reported interesting sub-acute lesions, including yolk and pericardial edema, tail and head malformation, reduced and extremely reduced heart beat rate, blood stasis and spinal curvature, with the highest percentage recorded for BDE-209. Cardiac edema, damage of eye structure and hydrocephaly were confirmed also by histophatological examination. Furthermore, a toxic and dose-dependent liver vacuolization in BDE-209 was observed in all experimental groups. Although no statistically significant difference in gene expression was observed, BDE-209 up-regulated only Dio1 while the other congeners induced Tshβ, Ttr, Tbg and Dio1. Overall, this research highlighted that exposure to BDE-47, BDE-99 and BDE-209 at realistic concentrations caused lethal and sub-lethal alterations and impaired genes involved in thyroid hormones homeostasis leading to abnormal development of zebrafish embryos.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Faculty of Bioscience and Agro-Food and Environmental Technology, Teramo University, Località Piano d'Accio, 64100, Teramo, Italy.Center for Gender-Specific Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161, Rome, Italy.Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Teramo University, Località Piano d'Accio, 64100 Teramo, Italy.Faculty of Bioscience and Agro-Food and Environmental Technology, Teramo University, Località Piano d'Accio, 64100, Teramo, Italy.Faculty of Bioscience and Agro-Food and Environmental Technology, Teramo University, Località Piano d'Accio, 64100, Teramo, Italy.Faculty of Bioscience and Agro-Food and Environmental Technology, Teramo University, Località Piano d'Accio, 64100, Teramo, Italy. Electronic address: mperugini@unite.it.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31437728

Citation

Zezza, Daniela, et al. "Toxicological, Gene Expression and Histopathological Evaluations of Environmentally Realistic Concentrations of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers PBDE- 47, PBDE-99 and PBDE-209 On Zebrafish Embryos." Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 183, 2019, p. 109566.
Zezza D, Tait S, Della Salda L, et al. Toxicological, gene expression and histopathological evaluations of environmentally realistic concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDE- 47, PBDE-99 and PBDE-209 on zebrafish embryos. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019;183:109566.
Zezza, D., Tait, S., Della Salda, L., Amorena, M., Merola, C., & Perugini, M. (2019). Toxicological, gene expression and histopathological evaluations of environmentally realistic concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDE- 47, PBDE-99 and PBDE-209 on zebrafish embryos. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 183, p. 109566. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109566.
Zezza D, et al. Toxicological, Gene Expression and Histopathological Evaluations of Environmentally Realistic Concentrations of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers PBDE- 47, PBDE-99 and PBDE-209 On Zebrafish Embryos. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019 Nov 15;183:109566. PubMed PMID: 31437728.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Toxicological, gene expression and histopathological evaluations of environmentally realistic concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDE- 47, PBDE-99 and PBDE-209 on zebrafish embryos. AU - Zezza,Daniela, AU - Tait,Sabrina, AU - Della Salda,Leonardo, AU - Amorena,Michele, AU - Merola,Carmine, AU - Perugini,Monia, Y1 - 2019/08/19/ PY - 2019/04/19/received PY - 2019/08/08/revised PY - 2019/08/11/accepted PY - 2019/8/23/pubmed PY - 2019/8/23/medline PY - 2019/8/23/entrez KW - BDE209 KW - BDE47 KW - BDE99 KW - Danio rerio KW - Histopathogy KW - Real-time PCR SP - 109566 EP - 109566 JF - Ecotoxicology and environmental safety JO - Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. VL - 183 N2 - Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are brominated flame retardants. Biomonitoring studies have shown widespread presence of PBDEs in humans and their accumulation in food chain cause concern to human health, especially for foetus and infant development. The early-life stages are generally considered more sensitive to exposure to toxic compounds than juvenile or adults. For this reason the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the three most environmentally relevant BDE (BDE- 47, 99 and 209) on zebrafish embryos. The fish embryo toxicity (FET) OECD tests on zebrafish were performed followed by histopathogical examination to assess morphological changes. The gene expression of the thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ), the transport proteins transthyretin (Ttr) and thyroxine-binding globulin (Tbg) as well as the enzyme iodothyronine deiodinase 1 (Dio1) was also assessed by Real-time PCR. BDE-47 and BDE-99 showed an increase of the severity of the effects at the lower concentrations while for the BDE-209 the effects were higher to the high concentrations. Although all compounds did not show any acute toxicity for none of the concentrations tested, they reported interesting sub-acute lesions, including yolk and pericardial edema, tail and head malformation, reduced and extremely reduced heart beat rate, blood stasis and spinal curvature, with the highest percentage recorded for BDE-209. Cardiac edema, damage of eye structure and hydrocephaly were confirmed also by histophatological examination. Furthermore, a toxic and dose-dependent liver vacuolization in BDE-209 was observed in all experimental groups. Although no statistically significant difference in gene expression was observed, BDE-209 up-regulated only Dio1 while the other congeners induced Tshβ, Ttr, Tbg and Dio1. Overall, this research highlighted that exposure to BDE-47, BDE-99 and BDE-209 at realistic concentrations caused lethal and sub-lethal alterations and impaired genes involved in thyroid hormones homeostasis leading to abnormal development of zebrafish embryos. SN - 1090-2414 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31437728/Toxicological,_gene_expression_and_histopathological_evaluations_of_environmentally_realistic_concentrations_of_polybrominated_diphenyl_ethers_PBDE-_47,_PBDE-99_and_PBDE-209_on_zebrafish_embryos L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0147-6513(19)30897-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -