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Effects of Active Video Games on Children's Psychosocial Beliefs and School Day Energy Expenditure.
J Clin Med 2019; 8(9)JC

Abstract

Purpose:

Examine the effects of active video games (AVGs) on children's school-day energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA)-related self-efficacy, social support, and outcome expectancy over 9 months. Method: Participants were 81 fourth grade students (X ¯ age = 9.23 years, SD = 0.62; 39 girls) from two urban Minnesota elementary schools. A once-weekly 50 min AVG intervention was implemented in the intervention school for 9 months in 2014-2015 while the control school continued regular recess. Children's school-day EE (daily caloric expenditure) and mean daily metabolic equivalent (MET) values were estimated via accelerometry whereas self-efficacy, social support, and outcome expectancy were assessed with psychometrically-validated questionnaires. All measures were completed at baseline and at the 4th and 9th months.

Results:

We observed significant interaction effects for daily caloric expenditure, F(1, 58) = 15.8, p < 0.01, mean daily MET values, F(1, 58) = 11.3, p < 0.01, and outcome expectancy, F(1, 58) = 4.5, p < 0.05. Specifically, intervention children had greater increases in daily caloric expenditure (91 kilocalorie/day post-intervention group difference), with control children decreasing daily caloric expenditure over time. We observed identical trends for mean daily MET values (0.35 METs/day post-intervention group difference). Interestingly, we observed outcome expectancy to increase in the control children, but decrease among intervention children, at post-intervention (1.35 group difference). Finally, we observed a marginally significant interaction effect for social support, F(1, 58) = 3.104, p = 0.08, with an increase and decrease seen in the intervention and control children, respectively. We observed no interaction or main effects for self-efficacy. Discussion: Observations suggested an AVG intervention contributed to longitudinal increases in school-day EE and social support compared to the control condition. Future research should examine how self-efficacy and outcome expectancy might be promoted during school-based AVG interventions.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Sport Rehabilitation, School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai 200438, China. gaoz@umn.edu. School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. gaoz@umn.edu.School of Public Health, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.Department of Applied Human Sciences, University of Minnesota, Duluth, MN 55812, USA.Department of Sport Rehabilitation, School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai 200438, China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31438548

Citation

Gao, Zan, et al. "Effects of Active Video Games On Children's Psychosocial Beliefs and School Day Energy Expenditure." Journal of Clinical Medicine, vol. 8, no. 9, 2019.
Gao Z, Pope ZC, Lee JE, et al. Effects of Active Video Games on Children's Psychosocial Beliefs and School Day Energy Expenditure. J Clin Med. 2019;8(9).
Gao, Z., Pope, Z. C., Lee, J. E., & Quan, M. (2019). Effects of Active Video Games on Children's Psychosocial Beliefs and School Day Energy Expenditure. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8(9), doi:10.3390/jcm8091268.
Gao Z, et al. Effects of Active Video Games On Children's Psychosocial Beliefs and School Day Energy Expenditure. J Clin Med. 2019 Aug 21;8(9) PubMed PMID: 31438548.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of Active Video Games on Children's Psychosocial Beliefs and School Day Energy Expenditure. AU - Gao,Zan, AU - Pope,Zachary C, AU - Lee,Jung Eun, AU - Quan,Minghui, Y1 - 2019/08/21/ PY - 2019/07/22/received PY - 2019/08/16/revised PY - 2019/08/16/accepted PY - 2019/8/24/entrez PY - 2019/8/24/pubmed PY - 2019/8/24/medline KW - active video games KW - outcome expectancy KW - pediatric obesity KW - self-efficacy KW - social support JF - Journal of clinical medicine JO - J Clin Med VL - 8 IS - 9 N2 - Purpose: Examine the effects of active video games (AVGs) on children's school-day energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA)-related self-efficacy, social support, and outcome expectancy over 9 months. Method: Participants were 81 fourth grade students (X ¯ age = 9.23 years, SD = 0.62; 39 girls) from two urban Minnesota elementary schools. A once-weekly 50 min AVG intervention was implemented in the intervention school for 9 months in 2014-2015 while the control school continued regular recess. Children's school-day EE (daily caloric expenditure) and mean daily metabolic equivalent (MET) values were estimated via accelerometry whereas self-efficacy, social support, and outcome expectancy were assessed with psychometrically-validated questionnaires. All measures were completed at baseline and at the 4th and 9th months. Results: We observed significant interaction effects for daily caloric expenditure, F(1, 58) = 15.8, p < 0.01, mean daily MET values, F(1, 58) = 11.3, p < 0.01, and outcome expectancy, F(1, 58) = 4.5, p < 0.05. Specifically, intervention children had greater increases in daily caloric expenditure (91 kilocalorie/day post-intervention group difference), with control children decreasing daily caloric expenditure over time. We observed identical trends for mean daily MET values (0.35 METs/day post-intervention group difference). Interestingly, we observed outcome expectancy to increase in the control children, but decrease among intervention children, at post-intervention (1.35 group difference). Finally, we observed a marginally significant interaction effect for social support, F(1, 58) = 3.104, p = 0.08, with an increase and decrease seen in the intervention and control children, respectively. We observed no interaction or main effects for self-efficacy. Discussion: Observations suggested an AVG intervention contributed to longitudinal increases in school-day EE and social support compared to the control condition. Future research should examine how self-efficacy and outcome expectancy might be promoted during school-based AVG interventions. SN - 2077-0383 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31438548/Effects_of_Active_Video_Games_on_Children's_Psychosocial_Beliefs_and_School_Day_Energy_Expenditure L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=jcm8091268 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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