Untreated adult GH deficiency is not associated with the development of metabolic risk factors: a long-term observational study.J Endocrinol Invest 2019JE
Uncertainties exist about the predictors of the severity of the clinical picture of GH deficiency (GHD) syndrome. Aim of the study was to evaluate, in adult patients with GHD, the predictors of the development of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis.
We retrospectively studied 327 adult patients (age 47.1 ± 17.1 years) with untreated severe GHD (mean follow-up 110.9 ± 56.8 months). GHD was defined by GHRH + arginine test using BMI cut-offs. The possible development of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis was investigated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. For each clinical outcome, either a univariate or multivariate analysis according to the Cox proportional-hazards model was performed to identify those factors that were associated with the development of the event.
GH secretion parameters were not associated with the outcomes. Hypercholesterolemia was positively and negatively predicted by a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (HR 2.50, p 0.00) and the dose of l-thyroxine possibly in place (HR 0.98, p 0.02), respectively. Hypertension was positively predicted by a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (HR 2.64, p 0.00) and IGF-I SDS values (HR 2.26, p 0.00). Diabetes mellitus was positively predicted by hypertension (HR 11.76, p 0.01). Osteoporosis was positively and negatively predicted by hypercholesterolemia (HR 3.25, p 0.01) and hypertension (HR 0.21, p 0.00), respectively.
The severity of the impairment of GH secretion does not predict the development of the clinical picture of GHD syndrome: untreated adult GHD does not increase the development of metabolic risk factors in hypopituitaric patients.