[Comparison of chemical constituents of wild silkworm cocoon and domestic silkworm cocoon by UHPLC-MS technology].Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2019 Aug 25; 35(8):1546-1556.SW
Identifying and comparing the chemical constituents of wild silkworm cocoon and silkworm cocoon is of great significance for understanding the domestication of silkworm. In this study, we used high temperature and high pressure and methanol-water system to extract cocoon chemical constituents. We used UHPLC-MS to identify and compare cocoon chemical constituents of wild silkworm and domestic silkworm Dazao and Haoyue strains. The cocoon metabolic fingerprints of wild silkworm and domestic silkworm Dazao and Haoyue strains were obtained by using the UHPLC-MS in the positive ion mode and negative ion mode. By annotation, we found that cocoon chemical compounds with high abundances contained amino acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenes, organic acids, and lignans. PLS-DA showed that the cocoon components were significantly different among the wild silkworm and two domestic silkworm strains Dazao and Haoyue. Proline, leucine/isoleucine and phenylalanine showed significantly higher abundances in the cocoon of domestic silkworm Dazao strain than in those of wild silkworm and domestic silkworm Haoyue strain. The flavonoid secondary metabolites are abundant in the Dazao cocoon, including quercetin, isoquercetin, quercetin 3-O-sophoroside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O- rutinoside, and kaempferol. The other secondary metabolites, alkaloids, terpenes and lignans, showed higher abundances in the wild silkworm cocoon than in the domestic silkworm cocoon, including neurine, candicine, pilocarpidine, artemisiifolin, eupassopin, and eudesobovatol. By exposing cocoons to UV light and observing the green fluorescence of flavonoids, we found that Dazao cocoon had the most flavonoids, and Haoyue cocoon had least flavonoids and wild silkworm cocoon had mediate flavonoids. Alkaloids and organic acids are good anti-insect and antimicrobial agents, which have high abundance in the wild silkworm cocoon and could enhance the defense ability of wild silkworm cocoon. Flavonoids are abundant in the cocoon of domestic silkworm Dazao strain, which the main factors are leading to the yellow-green cocoon of Dazao.