Live imaging the Foreign Body Response reveals how dampening inflammation reduces fibrosis.J Cell Sci 2019JC
Implanting biomaterials in tissues leads to inflammation and a Foreign Body Response (FBR), which can result in rejection. Here we live image the FBR triggered by surgical suture implantation in a translucent zebrafish model and compare with an acute wound response. We observe inflammation extending from the suture margins, and correlating with subsequent avascular and fibrotic encapsulation zones: sutures that induce more inflammation result in increased zones of avascularity and fibrosis. Moreover, we capture macrophages as they fuse to become multinucleate foreign body giant cells (FBGCs) adjacent to the most pro-inflammatory sutures. Genetic and pharmacological dampening of the inflammatory response minimises the FBR (including FBGC generation) and normalises the status of the tissue surrounding these sutures. This model of FBR in adult zebrafish allows us to live image the process and to modulate it in ways that may lead us towards new strategies to ameliorate and circumvent FBR in humans.