Computationally optimized broadly reactive vaccine based upon swine H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin sequences protects against both swine and human isolated viruses.Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2019; 15(9):2013-2029.HV
Swine H1 influenza viruses were stable within pigs for nearly 70 years until in 1998 when a classical swine virus reassorted with avian and human influenza viruses to generate the novel triple reassortant H1N1 strain that eventually led to the 2009 influenza pandemic. Previously, our group demonstrated broad protection against a panel of human H1N1 viruses using HA antigens derived by the COBRA methodology. In this report, the effectiveness of COBRA HA antigens (SW1, SW2, SW3 and SW4), which were designed using only HA sequences from swine H1N1 and H1N2 isolates, were tested in BALB/c mice. The effectiveness of these vaccines were compared to HA sequences designed using both human and swine H1 HA sequences or human only sequences. SW2 and SW4 elicited antibodies that detected the pandemic-like virus, A/California/07/2009 (CA/09), had antibodies with HAI activity against almost all the classical swine influenza viruses isolated from 1973-2015 and all of the Eurasian viruses in our panel. However, sera collected from mice vaccinated with SW2 or SW4 had HAI activity against ~25% of the human seasonal-like influenza viruses isolated from 2009-2015. In contrast, the P1 COBRA HA vaccine (derived from both swine and human HA sequences) elicited antibodies that had HAI activity against both swine and human H1 viruses and protected against CA/09 challenge, but not a human seasonal-like swine H1N2 virus challenge. However, the SW1 vaccine protected against this challenge as well as the homologous vaccine. These results support the idea that a pan-swine-human H1 influenza virus vaccine is possible.