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Occurrence, source, and risk assessment of atmospheric parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the coastal cities of the Bohai and Yellow Seas, China.
Environ Pollut. 2019 Nov; 254(Pt B):113046.EP

Abstract

Parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAHs) in the ambient air of the coastal cities near the Bohai and Yellow Seas were measured over a full year. The range and geometric average of total PPAH29 (29 species) were 5.16-1.22 × 103 and 118 ng/m3, respectively, with 77 ± 14% in a gaseous phase. The 16 priority components accounted for 90 ± 4% of the total mass concentration. The incremental life cancer risk (ILCR) via inhalation exposure to the PPAHs (3.17 × 10-4) was underestimated by 80%, as only the priority PPAHs were considered. The air concentrations of PPAHs in the Bohai Sea area were generally higher (p < 0.01) than those in the Yellow Sea area. A significant increase (p < 0.01) in the levels of PPAHs and large fractions of high molecular weight (HMW) components were observed in winter. Absorption by particulate organic carbon dominated in gas-particle partitioning of the PPAHs, and the seasonal variations in gas-particle partitioning of the low and moderate molecular weight compounds were more noticeable relative to the HMW species. In summer, significantly higher concentrations of PPAHs were found in the daytime than during nighttime, while the opposite case occurred in winter (p < 0.05). The positive matrix factorization (PMF) results indicated greater contributions of coal and biomass combustion to the PPAH emissions in the coastal cities of the Bohai Sea area compared with the Yellow Sea area. The burning of coal and biomass served as the main source of PPAHs in winter, while traffic exhaust was the dominant source in other seasons. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) revealed the important impacts of the external inputs on the local PPAHs via air mass transport. The contributions of the resolved emission sources to the ILCR were clearly different from those of the mass concentrations, indicating the necessity for source-oriented risk assessments.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Key Laboratory for Earth Surface and Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.Key Laboratory for Earth Surface and Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.Center for Environmental Engineering Assessment, Qiqihar, Heilongjiang Province 161005, China.Collaborative Innovation Center of Sustainable Forestry in Southern China of Jiangsu Province, College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210037, China.Key Laboratory for Earth Surface and Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.Key Laboratory for Earth Surface and Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.Key Laboratory for Earth Surface and Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.Key Laboratory for Earth Surface and Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.Key Laboratory for Earth Surface and Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.Key Laboratory for Earth Surface and Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address: wxliu@urban.pku.edu.cn.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31454587

Citation

Liu, WeiJian, et al. "Occurrence, Source, and Risk Assessment of Atmospheric Parent Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Coastal Cities of the Bohai and Yellow Seas, China." Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), vol. 254, no. Pt B, 2019, p. 113046.
Liu W, Xu Y, Zhao Y, et al. Occurrence, source, and risk assessment of atmospheric parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the coastal cities of the Bohai and Yellow Seas, China. Environ Pollut. 2019;254(Pt B):113046.
Liu, W., Xu, Y., Zhao, Y., Liu, Q., Yu, S., Liu, Y., Wang, X., Liu, Y., Tao, S., & Liu, W. (2019). Occurrence, source, and risk assessment of atmospheric parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the coastal cities of the Bohai and Yellow Seas, China. Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 254(Pt B), 113046. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113046
Liu W, et al. Occurrence, Source, and Risk Assessment of Atmospheric Parent Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Coastal Cities of the Bohai and Yellow Seas, China. Environ Pollut. 2019;254(Pt B):113046. PubMed PMID: 31454587.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Occurrence, source, and risk assessment of atmospheric parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the coastal cities of the Bohai and Yellow Seas, China. AU - Liu,WeiJian, AU - Xu,YunSong, AU - Zhao,YongZhi, AU - Liu,QingYang, AU - Yu,ShuangYu, AU - Liu,Yang, AU - Wang,Xin, AU - Liu,Yu, AU - Tao,Shu, AU - Liu,WenXin, Y1 - 2019/08/14/ PY - 2019/04/26/received PY - 2019/07/25/revised PY - 2019/08/09/accepted PY - 2019/8/28/pubmed PY - 2019/11/23/medline PY - 2019/8/28/entrez KW - Air PPAHs KW - ILCR KW - Littoral areas of the Bohai and Yellow Seas KW - Source apportionment KW - Spatiotemporal variations SP - 113046 EP - 113046 JF - Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) JO - Environ. Pollut. VL - 254 IS - Pt B N2 - Parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAHs) in the ambient air of the coastal cities near the Bohai and Yellow Seas were measured over a full year. The range and geometric average of total PPAH29 (29 species) were 5.16-1.22 × 103 and 118 ng/m3, respectively, with 77 ± 14% in a gaseous phase. The 16 priority components accounted for 90 ± 4% of the total mass concentration. The incremental life cancer risk (ILCR) via inhalation exposure to the PPAHs (3.17 × 10-4) was underestimated by 80%, as only the priority PPAHs were considered. The air concentrations of PPAHs in the Bohai Sea area were generally higher (p < 0.01) than those in the Yellow Sea area. A significant increase (p < 0.01) in the levels of PPAHs and large fractions of high molecular weight (HMW) components were observed in winter. Absorption by particulate organic carbon dominated in gas-particle partitioning of the PPAHs, and the seasonal variations in gas-particle partitioning of the low and moderate molecular weight compounds were more noticeable relative to the HMW species. In summer, significantly higher concentrations of PPAHs were found in the daytime than during nighttime, while the opposite case occurred in winter (p < 0.05). The positive matrix factorization (PMF) results indicated greater contributions of coal and biomass combustion to the PPAH emissions in the coastal cities of the Bohai Sea area compared with the Yellow Sea area. The burning of coal and biomass served as the main source of PPAHs in winter, while traffic exhaust was the dominant source in other seasons. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) revealed the important impacts of the external inputs on the local PPAHs via air mass transport. The contributions of the resolved emission sources to the ILCR were clearly different from those of the mass concentrations, indicating the necessity for source-oriented risk assessments. SN - 1873-6424 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31454587/Occurrence_source_and_risk_assessment_of_atmospheric_parent_polycyclic_aromatic_hydrocarbons_in_the_coastal_cities_of_the_Bohai_and_Yellow_Seas_China_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0269-7491(19)32189-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -