Confident performance of chitosan and pistachio shell biochar on reducing Ni bioavailability in soil and plant plus improved the soil enzymatic activities, antioxidant defense system and nutritional quality of lettuce.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019 Nov 15; 183:109594.EE
Nickel being a toxic heavy metal is considered as a hazardous pollutant in the soil environment. The cultivation of edible vegetables on Ni contaminated soil can deteriorate plant quality which causes critical health issues to humans and animals. Therefore, the remediation for such Ni polluted soils has currently become a great challenge for the researchers. Contrastingly, lowering bioavailability of Ni in those soils based on applying appropriate immobilizing amendments demonstrating a target to relieve virulence to plants can remarkably diminish the environmental hazard. In this experiment, biochar (BR) along diverse clays like bentonite (BE), cationic-zeolite (C-ZE), chitosan (CN) and attapulgite (AP) as individual doses at 2% each in a soil synthetically spiked with Ni (at 50 ppm) magnificently immobilize Ni and curtailed its bioavailability to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). In addition, the related influences of planned treatments on translocation of Ni to shoots and leaves, antioxidant preventive system over oxidative injury, biochemistry and nutritional ability of lettuce were monitored. Results suggested that the CN2% treatment performed excellently in terms of reducing Ni concentrations in leaves and roots of lettuce plants along bioavailable Ni in the soil after plant harvest. Surprisingly, the BR2% treatment efficiently promoted enzymatic activities in the soil and developed moisture content, photosynthesis, biomass, biochemistry, and nutrition (both micronutrients and macronutrients) and antioxidant preventive system while diminished Ni oxidative injury in lettuce plants over rest of the treatments. Finally, our results confirmed that individually applying CN at 2% in a Ni contaminated soil could significantly control Ni bioavailability, whereas, application of BR at 2% could remarkably develop aforementioned parameters in lettuce plants.