Ultrasound evidence of bladder outlet obstruction secondary to lichen sclerosus et atrophicus in boys (balanitis xerotica obliterans).J Pediatr Surg 2019JP
Lichen sclerosus (LS), (balanitis xerotica obliterans), causes pathological phimosis. Many boys present with obstructive symptoms, the cause is usually obvious on examination so ultrasound scans (USS) of the urinary tract are not routinely indicated. We review a series of abnormal USS in boys with LS.
Retrospective note review for boys undergoing surgical treatment for LS between 2000 and 2017. Seventy-eight boys had a USS prior to surgery, those with abnormal USS form the study population. Boys with neuropathic bladder or congenital urinary tract abnormalities were excluded.
Nineteen of 78 boys (24%), mean age 9 years, were included. Seventeen had obstructive symptoms, 13 had culture proven UTIs, 12 had new onset incontinence. On USS 3 (17%) had acute retention, 8 (78%) had an isolated post-void residual volume (PVR) >10% of estimated bladder capacity (EBC); 3 had bladder wall thickening +/- PVR >10%, 5 had upper tract changes. Symptoms resolved with successful treatment of LS. Six boys had post treatment USS, abnormalities resolved in 5.
Clinicians should consider LS in boys presenting with UTIs, new onset incontinence and obstructive urinary tract symptoms. Routine USS are not indicated though should be considered in those with an atypical history or examination.
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