Current understanding of tumor lysis syndrome.Hematol Oncol 2019HO
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an oncologic emergency from the intracellular release of material in lysing malignant cells. The earlier it is treated, the less likely it is to be harmful to an individual and spread through the body. Common complications of TLS include arrhythmias, which are caused by hypocalcemia or hyperkalemia, renal failures due to hyperuricemia or hyperphosphatemia, and seizures. Furthermore, the risk to develop TLS varies widely based on several factors including factors that are related to disease, the patient, and the treatment of the patient. Laboratory data can be used to gauge the severity of TLS based on patient serum levels for specific markers. On the contrary, evidence of TLS via radiological imaging and electrocardiogram findings has been a limited way to evaluate TLS, indicating the need for further research in this area. Common trends of treatment have also been seen in the past several years, evident by case studies seen in the following literature review.