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Antibiogram and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovered from treated wastewater effluent and receiving surface water in Durban, South Africa.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2019 Aug 28; 35(9):142.WJ

Abstract

Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may serve as a reservoir for potentially pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria. The discharge of improperly treated wastewater effluent may lead to the spread of these bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) which is responsible for causing pneumonia, septicaemia and skin and soft tissue infections, into the receiving surface waters. This study aimed to determine the antibiogram and virulence gene profiles of MRSA isolates recovered from treated wastewater effluent and receiving surface waters. Genetic fingerprinting of the isolates was also carried out to determine the phylogenetic relationship between the isolates and selected antibiogram profiles. Eighty MRSA isolates were obtained from treated effluent and receiving rivers of two WWTPs in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. Antibiotic resistance was observed towards lincomycin (100%), oxacillin (98.75%), cefoxitin and penicillin (97.50%), and ampicillin (96.25%). In addition, 72.50%, 66.25%, 52.50%, 40% and 33.75% of isolates showed resistance against cefozolin, azithromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, erythromycin and vancomycin, respectively. Antibiotic resistance genes detected in the isolates tested in this study: aac(6')/aph(2″) (56.25%), ermC (62.50%), msrA (22.50%), and blaZ and tetK (70%). The frequency of virulence genes: hla and sea was 57.50%, hld was 1.25%, while lukS P/V was 0%. Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis analysis generated 13 pulsotypes (designated A-M) showing a correlation to their respective antibiograms. Findings from this study showed the presence of potentially pathogenic, multi-drug resistant MRSA in the treated effluent and receiving surface waters. This may have detrimental effects on the health of individuals who come into contact with these water resources.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Discipline of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal (Westville Campus), Private Bag X54001, Durban, Republic of South Africa.Discipline of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal (Westville Campus), Private Bag X54001, Durban, Republic of South Africa. olanirana@ukzn.ac.za.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31463610

Citation

Ramessar, Kerisha, and Ademola O. Olaniran. "Antibiogram and Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Recovered From Treated Wastewater Effluent and Receiving Surface Water in Durban, South Africa." World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, vol. 35, no. 9, 2019, p. 142.
Ramessar K, Olaniran AO. Antibiogram and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovered from treated wastewater effluent and receiving surface water in Durban, South Africa. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2019;35(9):142.
Ramessar, K., & Olaniran, A. O. (2019). Antibiogram and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovered from treated wastewater effluent and receiving surface water in Durban, South Africa. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 35(9), 142. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-019-2715-9
Ramessar K, Olaniran AO. Antibiogram and Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Recovered From Treated Wastewater Effluent and Receiving Surface Water in Durban, South Africa. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2019 Aug 28;35(9):142. PubMed PMID: 31463610.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Antibiogram and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovered from treated wastewater effluent and receiving surface water in Durban, South Africa. AU - Ramessar,Kerisha, AU - Olaniran,Ademola O, Y1 - 2019/08/28/ PY - 2019/02/13/received PY - 2019/08/21/accepted PY - 2019/8/30/entrez PY - 2019/8/30/pubmed PY - 2019/8/30/medline KW - Antibiograms KW - Antibiotic resistance genes KW - Pulse field gel electrophoresis KW - Virulence genes KW - Wastewater treatment plants KW - methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus SP - 142 EP - 142 JF - World journal of microbiology & biotechnology JO - World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. VL - 35 IS - 9 N2 - Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may serve as a reservoir for potentially pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria. The discharge of improperly treated wastewater effluent may lead to the spread of these bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) which is responsible for causing pneumonia, septicaemia and skin and soft tissue infections, into the receiving surface waters. This study aimed to determine the antibiogram and virulence gene profiles of MRSA isolates recovered from treated wastewater effluent and receiving surface waters. Genetic fingerprinting of the isolates was also carried out to determine the phylogenetic relationship between the isolates and selected antibiogram profiles. Eighty MRSA isolates were obtained from treated effluent and receiving rivers of two WWTPs in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. Antibiotic resistance was observed towards lincomycin (100%), oxacillin (98.75%), cefoxitin and penicillin (97.50%), and ampicillin (96.25%). In addition, 72.50%, 66.25%, 52.50%, 40% and 33.75% of isolates showed resistance against cefozolin, azithromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, erythromycin and vancomycin, respectively. Antibiotic resistance genes detected in the isolates tested in this study: aac(6')/aph(2″) (56.25%), ermC (62.50%), msrA (22.50%), and blaZ and tetK (70%). The frequency of virulence genes: hla and sea was 57.50%, hld was 1.25%, while lukS P/V was 0%. Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis analysis generated 13 pulsotypes (designated A-M) showing a correlation to their respective antibiograms. Findings from this study showed the presence of potentially pathogenic, multi-drug resistant MRSA in the treated effluent and receiving surface waters. This may have detrimental effects on the health of individuals who come into contact with these water resources. SN - 1573-0972 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31463610/Antibiogram_and_molecular_characterization_of_methicillin_resistant_Staphylococcus_aureus_recovered_from_treated_wastewater_effluent_and_receiving_surface_water_in_Durban_South_Africa_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-019-2715-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -