Consumption of low nutritive value foods and cardiometabolic risk factors among French-speaking adults from Quebec, Canada: the PREDISE study.Nutr J. 2019 08 29; 18(1):49.NJ
There is very limited knowledge on the magnitude to which foods with low nutritive value constitute the diet of adults from the province of Quebec. The extent to which these foods impact cardiometabolic risk is also poorly documented. The objective was to assess the contribution of low nutritive value foods to total energy intake (E) and to examine associations with cardiometabolic risk factors among French-speaking adults from 5 administrative regions of the Province of Quebec.
As part of the cross-sectional PREDISE Study, 1147 adults (50.2% women; mean [SD] age, 43.2 [4.6] years) participated in a web-based investigation. Dietary intake data were obtained using a validated web-based self-administered 24-h recall, the R24W, completed on three occasions. Foods with low nutritive value were defined as foods exceeding predetermined thresholds for the following nutrients: saturated fat, sugar or sodium as well as beverages and ingredients not recommended in Canada's Food Guide 2019. A total of 1019 participants underwent on-site clinical assessment of cardiometabolic risk factors.
Participants consumed on average 29.0%E (95%CI, 28.2-29.7) as low nutritive value foods, to which pastries (18%), alcohol (15%), sweets (13%), chips/popcorn (6%) and sugar-sweetened beverages (6%) contributed the most. Low nutritive value foods contributed more to total E in men than in women (30.7%E vs. 27.5%E, respectively; P < 0.0001). In fully-adjusted linear regression models, increments of 250 kcal/d from low nutritive value foods were associated with higher body mass index (+ 1.7 kg/m2; 95%CI 1.2 to 2.2), higher waist circumference (+ 0.6 cm; 95%CI, 0.1 to 1.1), cholesterol: HDL cholesterol ratio (+ 0.12 mmol/L; 95%CI, 0.01 to 0.24 and triglycerides (+ 7.8%; 95%CI, 3.0 to 12.8).
Low nutritive value foods contribute near 30% of total daily energy intake of French-speaking adults of the Province of Quebec and are associated with increased waist circumference and an unfavourable lipid profile. Addressing consumption of low nutritive value foods at the population level is a potential strategy to attenuate the burden of chronic diseases.