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Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characterization of cervical spondylomyelopathy in juvenile dogs.
J Vet Intern Med. 2019 Sep; 33(5):2160-2166.JV

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM) occurs because of compression of the cervical spinal cord, nerve roots, or both, usually affecting young adult to older large and giant breed dogs. Juvenile dogs are affected infrequently.

OBJECTIVE

To describe clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in juvenile dogs (≤ 12 months) with cervical spondylomyelopathy.

ANIMALS

Twenty CSM-affected juvenile dogs.

METHODS

Medical and imaging records for juvenile dogs with CSM were reviewed. History and neurologic examination findings were obtained, including follow-up data. The MRI studies were reviewed for cause and site of spinal cord compression, intervertebral disk protrusion or degeneration, articular process degenerative changes, intervertebral foraminal stenosis, and spinal cord signal changes.

RESULTS

Mean (median) age at the time of diagnosis was 9.4 (10) months. There were 16 giant breed dogs. Eighteen dogs had a chronic presentation, 18/20 had proprioceptive ataxia, and 9/20 had cervical pain. On MRI, the principal spinal cord compression occurred at C5-C6, C6-C7, or both in most dogs; 12/20 dogs had ≥2 sites of spinal cord compression. The cause of compression was articular process proliferation in 8/20 dogs and disk protrusion in 2/20 dogs. Intervertebral disk degeneration was seen in 9/20 dogs. Follow-up was obtained for 12/20 dogs: 10/12 were managed medically and 2/12 surgically.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE

Cervical spondylomyelopathy in juvenile dogs was characterized mostly by osseous-associated spinal cord compression and multiple compressive sites. Almost half of the dogs had intervertebral disk degeneration. Intervertebral disk protrusion was seen in both giant and large breed dogs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, 601 Vernon Tharp St., Columbus, Ohio.Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, 601 Vernon Tharp St., Columbus, Ohio.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31469206

Citation

de Albuquerque Bonelli, Marília, and Ronaldo C. da Costa. "Clinical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Characterization of Cervical Spondylomyelopathy in Juvenile Dogs." Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, vol. 33, no. 5, 2019, pp. 2160-2166.
de Albuquerque Bonelli M, da Costa RC. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characterization of cervical spondylomyelopathy in juvenile dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33(5):2160-2166.
de Albuquerque Bonelli, M., & da Costa, R. C. (2019). Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characterization of cervical spondylomyelopathy in juvenile dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 33(5), 2160-2166. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15602
de Albuquerque Bonelli M, da Costa RC. Clinical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Characterization of Cervical Spondylomyelopathy in Juvenile Dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33(5):2160-2166. PubMed PMID: 31469206.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characterization of cervical spondylomyelopathy in juvenile dogs. AU - de Albuquerque Bonelli,Marília, AU - da Costa,Ronaldo C, Y1 - 2019/08/30/ PY - 2019/02/28/received PY - 2019/08/07/accepted PY - 2019/8/31/pubmed PY - 2020/2/6/medline PY - 2019/8/31/entrez KW - cervical spine KW - diagnostic imaging KW - retrospective study KW - wobbler syndrome SP - 2160 EP - 2166 JF - Journal of veterinary internal medicine JO - J. Vet. Intern. Med. VL - 33 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM) occurs because of compression of the cervical spinal cord, nerve roots, or both, usually affecting young adult to older large and giant breed dogs. Juvenile dogs are affected infrequently. OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in juvenile dogs (≤ 12 months) with cervical spondylomyelopathy. ANIMALS: Twenty CSM-affected juvenile dogs. METHODS: Medical and imaging records for juvenile dogs with CSM were reviewed. History and neurologic examination findings were obtained, including follow-up data. The MRI studies were reviewed for cause and site of spinal cord compression, intervertebral disk protrusion or degeneration, articular process degenerative changes, intervertebral foraminal stenosis, and spinal cord signal changes. RESULTS: Mean (median) age at the time of diagnosis was 9.4 (10) months. There were 16 giant breed dogs. Eighteen dogs had a chronic presentation, 18/20 had proprioceptive ataxia, and 9/20 had cervical pain. On MRI, the principal spinal cord compression occurred at C5-C6, C6-C7, or both in most dogs; 12/20 dogs had ≥2 sites of spinal cord compression. The cause of compression was articular process proliferation in 8/20 dogs and disk protrusion in 2/20 dogs. Intervertebral disk degeneration was seen in 9/20 dogs. Follow-up was obtained for 12/20 dogs: 10/12 were managed medically and 2/12 surgically. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Cervical spondylomyelopathy in juvenile dogs was characterized mostly by osseous-associated spinal cord compression and multiple compressive sites. Almost half of the dogs had intervertebral disk degeneration. Intervertebral disk protrusion was seen in both giant and large breed dogs. SN - 1939-1676 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31469206/Clinical_and_magnetic_resonance_imaging_characterization_of_cervical_spondylomyelopathy_in_juvenile_dogs_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15602 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -