Determinants of Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Remodeling in Patients With Corrected Tetralogy of Fallot.J Am Heart Assoc. 2019 09 03; 8(17):e009618.JA
Background The aim of this study was to identify in asymptomatic patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot the prevalence and determinants of impaired left-sided cardiac function and adverse ventricular remodeling and the relation of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and remodeling with cardiopulmonary exercise capacity. Methods and Results In a cross-sectional study, 103 patients with tetralogy of Fallot (median age, 16.3 years) in New York Heart Association class 1, with surgical repair at a median age of 1.1 years, and 63 age-matched controls were studied. LV, right ventricular function and geometry, LV myocardial extracellular volume (n=57), and left atrial function were quantified with cardiac magnetic resonance. Peak oxygen consumption was measured by a standardized cardiopulmonary exercise test (n=70). Patients with tetralogy of Fallot had lower LV ejection fraction (P=0.001; 49% below age-adjusted fifth percentile for controls), lower LV mass index (P=0.003), lower LV mass/volume ratio (P<0.01), and impaired left atrial function. Right ventricular mass/volume ratio was the best predictor for LV systolic dysfunction and for a lower LV mass/volume ratio. Compared with controls, LV extracellular volume was higher (P<0.001), particularly in female patients, and associated with subnormal peak oxygen consumption (P=0.037). A peak oxygen consumption below the third percentile reference level was more likely with decreasing LV ejection fraction (P=0.008), and lower LV mass index (P=0.024), but independent of right ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusions In New York Heart Association class 1 patients with tetralogy of Fallot, frequent impaired systolic and diastolic LV function, LV adverse remodeling with LV atrophy, a decreased mass/volume ratio, and extracellular matrix expansion suggest cardiomyopathic changes. The best predictor for LV systolic dysfunction was the right ventricular mass/volume ratio. The subnormal peak oxygen consumption indicates that monitoring of LV status may be important for long-term prognosis.