Unexpected endemism in the Daphnia longispina complex (Crustacea: Cladocera) in Southern Siberia.PLoS One. 2019; 14(9):e0221527.Plos
The biological significance of regional cladoceran morphotypes in the montane regions of the central Palearctic remains poorly understood. In the Holarctic Daphnia longispina complex (Cladocera: Daphniidae), several variants, lineages and species have been proposed as endemic for Southern Siberia. Daphnia turbinata Sars, for example, named after its unusual head shape, is known only from Southern Siberia. Here we sequence DNA of Daphnia from three mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2, ND2) from 57 localities in Russia and Mongolia (the majority being from Southern Siberia) and place them in evolutionary context with existing data. Our aim was to examine regional endemism of the Daphnia longispina complex in Southern Siberian; to improve the phylogenetic understanding with improved taxonomic and regional sampling, and to better understand the influence of Pleistocene glaciation on the biogeography of these lineages. At least three lineages showed genetic evidence for endemism in Southern Siberia. There was strong support for D. turbinata as a sister lineage to to D. longispina/D. dentifera. Another endemic, Siberian D. cf. longispina, is a sister group to the longispina group in general. Within D. longispina s. str. there was an endemic Siberian clade with a western range boundary near the Yenisei River Basin. Gene flow estimates among populations (based on FST values) were very low for clades of D. longispina on a regional (the original 12S dataset), and on a pan-Eurasian (the extended 12S dataset) scale. Negative values of Fu's FS and Tajima's D tests prevailed for the species examined with significant values found for two D. longispina clades, D. dentifera, D. galeata and D. cristata. Our results support the notion that Southern Siberia is an important biogeographic region for cladocerans as it contained unexpected diversity of endemics (such as D. turbinata, D. cf. longispina and lineages of D. umbra and D. longsipina s.str.) and from being the geographic meeting place of expanding postglacial lineages from eastern and western refugia.