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Skull remains of the dinosaur Saturnalia tupiniquim (Late Triassic, Brazil): With comments on the early evolution of sauropodomorph feeding behaviour.
PLoS One. 2019; 14(9):e0221387.Plos

Abstract

Saturnalia tupiniquim is a sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Late Triassic (Carnian-c. 233 Ma) Santa Maria Formation of Brazil. Due to its phylogenetic position and age, it is important for studies focusing on the early evolution of both dinosaurs and sauropodomorphs. The osteology of Saturnalia has been described in a series of papers, but its cranial anatomy remains mostly unknown. Here, we describe the skull bones of one of its paratypes (only in the type-series to possess such remains) based on CT Scan data. The newly described elements allowed estimating the cranial length of Saturnalia and provide additional support for the presence of a reduced skull (i.e. two thirds of the femoral length) in this taxon, as typical of later sauropodomorphs. Skull reduction in Saturnalia could be related to an increased efficiency for predatory feeding behaviour, allowing fast movements of the head in order to secure small and elusive prey, a hypothesis also supported by data from its tooth and brain morphology. A principal co-ordinates analysis of the sauropodomorph jaw feeding apparatus shows marked shifts in morphospace occupation in different stages of the first 30 million years of their evolutionary history. One of these shifts is observed between non-plateosaurian and plateosaurian sauropodomorphs, suggesting that, despite also having an omnivorous diet, the feeding behaviour of some early Carnian sauropodomorphs, such as Saturnalia, was markedly different from that of later Triassic taxa. A second shift, between Late Triassic and Early Jurassic taxa, is congruent with a floral turnover hypothesis across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Laboratório de Paleontologia, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.Centro de Apoio à Pesquisa Paleontológica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.Laboratório de Paleontologia, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31490962

Citation

Bronzati, Mario, et al. "Skull Remains of the Dinosaur Saturnalia Tupiniquim (Late Triassic, Brazil): With Comments On the Early Evolution of Sauropodomorph Feeding Behaviour." PloS One, vol. 14, no. 9, 2019, pp. e0221387.
Bronzati M, Müller RT, Langer MC. Skull remains of the dinosaur Saturnalia tupiniquim (Late Triassic, Brazil): With comments on the early evolution of sauropodomorph feeding behaviour. PLoS One. 2019;14(9):e0221387.
Bronzati, M., Müller, R. T., & Langer, M. C. (2019). Skull remains of the dinosaur Saturnalia tupiniquim (Late Triassic, Brazil): With comments on the early evolution of sauropodomorph feeding behaviour. PloS One, 14(9), e0221387. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221387
Bronzati M, Müller RT, Langer MC. Skull Remains of the Dinosaur Saturnalia Tupiniquim (Late Triassic, Brazil): With Comments On the Early Evolution of Sauropodomorph Feeding Behaviour. PLoS One. 2019;14(9):e0221387. PubMed PMID: 31490962.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Skull remains of the dinosaur Saturnalia tupiniquim (Late Triassic, Brazil): With comments on the early evolution of sauropodomorph feeding behaviour. AU - Bronzati,Mario, AU - Müller,Rodrigo T, AU - Langer,Max C, Y1 - 2019/09/06/ PY - 2019/02/06/received PY - 2019/08/07/accepted PY - 2019/9/7/entrez PY - 2019/9/7/pubmed PY - 2020/3/10/medline SP - e0221387 EP - e0221387 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS One VL - 14 IS - 9 N2 - Saturnalia tupiniquim is a sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Late Triassic (Carnian-c. 233 Ma) Santa Maria Formation of Brazil. Due to its phylogenetic position and age, it is important for studies focusing on the early evolution of both dinosaurs and sauropodomorphs. The osteology of Saturnalia has been described in a series of papers, but its cranial anatomy remains mostly unknown. Here, we describe the skull bones of one of its paratypes (only in the type-series to possess such remains) based on CT Scan data. The newly described elements allowed estimating the cranial length of Saturnalia and provide additional support for the presence of a reduced skull (i.e. two thirds of the femoral length) in this taxon, as typical of later sauropodomorphs. Skull reduction in Saturnalia could be related to an increased efficiency for predatory feeding behaviour, allowing fast movements of the head in order to secure small and elusive prey, a hypothesis also supported by data from its tooth and brain morphology. A principal co-ordinates analysis of the sauropodomorph jaw feeding apparatus shows marked shifts in morphospace occupation in different stages of the first 30 million years of their evolutionary history. One of these shifts is observed between non-plateosaurian and plateosaurian sauropodomorphs, suggesting that, despite also having an omnivorous diet, the feeding behaviour of some early Carnian sauropodomorphs, such as Saturnalia, was markedly different from that of later Triassic taxa. A second shift, between Late Triassic and Early Jurassic taxa, is congruent with a floral turnover hypothesis across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31490962/Skull_remains_of_the_dinosaur_Saturnalia_tupiniquim__Late_Triassic_Brazil_:_With_comments_on_the_early_evolution_of_sauropodomorph_feeding_behaviour_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221387 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -