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Clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, treatment and outcome of acute organophosphate or carbamate intoxication in 102 dogs: A retrospective study.
Vet J 2019; 251:105349VJ

Abstract

Organophosphates (OP) and carbamates are commonly used insecticides and important intoxication sources of humans and animals. Nevertheless, large scale studies of these intoxications in dogs are unavailable. The medical records of dogs presented to a veterinary hospital were reviewed retrospectively. The study included 102 dogs definitely diagnosed with acute OP or carbamate intoxication. The most common presenting clinical signs included muscle tremor, hypersalivation, miosis, weakness, vomiting and diarrhea. Hypersalivation, muscle tremor and tachypnea were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with survival to discharge; while weakness, mental dullness, anorexia, pale mucous membranes and paddling were significantly associated with death. Common laboratory abnormalities included decreased butyrylcholine esterase activity, acidemia, increased total plasma protein, leukocytosis, hypochloridemia, hyperbilirubinemia, increased creatinine and alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and creatine kinase activities, and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Compared to the survivors, the non-survivors showed significantly: higher frequencies of thrombocytopenia, hypocarbemia, prolonged prothrombin time (PT), hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, hypocholesterolemia, hypoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, increased ALT activity and increased urea concentration; lower median concentrations of venous blood bicarbonate, serum chloride and total CO2; and higher medians of PT, serum total bilirubin and urea concentrations, and ALT and AST activities. Intoxicated dogs were commonly treated with diphenhydramine, atropine-sulfate, antibiotics, diazepam and pralidoxime, while some (19.2%) required general anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. The survival rate of dogs treated by gastric lavage was higher (P = 0.041) compared to that of the remaining dogs. Development of respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation requirement were significantly associated (P < 0.001) with death. The mortality rate was 17%.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Small Animal Emergency and Critical Care, The Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 761001, Israel; Department of Toxicology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan, 5025000, Israel; Department of Small Animal Internal Medicine, The Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 761001, Israel. Electronic address: klainbart@gmail.com.Department of Small Animal Emergency and Critical Care, The Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 761001, Israel; Department of Toxicology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan, 5025000, Israel; Department of Small Animal Internal Medicine, The Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 761001, Israel.Department of Small Animal Emergency and Critical Care, The Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 761001, Israel; Department of Toxicology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan, 5025000, Israel; Department of Small Animal Internal Medicine, The Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 761001, Israel.Department of Small Animal Emergency and Critical Care, The Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 761001, Israel; Department of Toxicology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan, 5025000, Israel; Department of Small Animal Internal Medicine, The Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 761001, Israel.Department of Small Animal Neurology, The Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 761001, Israel; Department of Toxicology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan, 5025000, Israel; Department of Small Animal Internal Medicine, The Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 761001, Israel.Department of Small Animal Emergency and Critical Care, The Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 761001, Israel; Department of Toxicology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan, 5025000, Israel; Department of Small Animal Internal Medicine, The Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 761001, Israel.Department of Small Animal Emergency and Critical Care, The Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 761001, Israel; Department of Toxicology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan, 5025000, Israel; Department of Small Animal Internal Medicine, The Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 761001, Israel.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31492383

Citation

Klainbart, S, et al. "Clinical Manifestations, Laboratory Findings, Treatment and Outcome of Acute Organophosphate or Carbamate Intoxication in 102 Dogs: a Retrospective Study." Veterinary Journal (London, England : 1997), vol. 251, 2019, p. 105349.
Klainbart S, Grabernik M, Kelmer E, et al. Clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, treatment and outcome of acute organophosphate or carbamate intoxication in 102 dogs: A retrospective study. Vet J. 2019;251:105349.
Klainbart, S., Grabernik, M., Kelmer, E., Chai, O., Cuneah, O., Segev, G., & Aroch, I. (2019). Clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, treatment and outcome of acute organophosphate or carbamate intoxication in 102 dogs: A retrospective study. Veterinary Journal (London, England : 1997), 251, p. 105349. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2019.105349.
Klainbart S, et al. Clinical Manifestations, Laboratory Findings, Treatment and Outcome of Acute Organophosphate or Carbamate Intoxication in 102 Dogs: a Retrospective Study. Vet J. 2019;251:105349. PubMed PMID: 31492383.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, treatment and outcome of acute organophosphate or carbamate intoxication in 102 dogs: A retrospective study. AU - Klainbart,S, AU - Grabernik,M, AU - Kelmer,E, AU - Chai,O, AU - Cuneah,O, AU - Segev,G, AU - Aroch,I, Y1 - 2019/07/31/ PY - 2018/10/13/received PY - 2019/07/25/revised PY - 2019/07/25/accepted PY - 2019/9/8/entrez KW - Acetylcholine esterase KW - Butyrylcholine esterase KW - Mechanical ventilation KW - Poisoning KW - Toxicity SP - 105349 EP - 105349 JF - Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997) JO - Vet. J. VL - 251 N2 - Organophosphates (OP) and carbamates are commonly used insecticides and important intoxication sources of humans and animals. Nevertheless, large scale studies of these intoxications in dogs are unavailable. The medical records of dogs presented to a veterinary hospital were reviewed retrospectively. The study included 102 dogs definitely diagnosed with acute OP or carbamate intoxication. The most common presenting clinical signs included muscle tremor, hypersalivation, miosis, weakness, vomiting and diarrhea. Hypersalivation, muscle tremor and tachypnea were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with survival to discharge; while weakness, mental dullness, anorexia, pale mucous membranes and paddling were significantly associated with death. Common laboratory abnormalities included decreased butyrylcholine esterase activity, acidemia, increased total plasma protein, leukocytosis, hypochloridemia, hyperbilirubinemia, increased creatinine and alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and creatine kinase activities, and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Compared to the survivors, the non-survivors showed significantly: higher frequencies of thrombocytopenia, hypocarbemia, prolonged prothrombin time (PT), hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, hypocholesterolemia, hypoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, increased ALT activity and increased urea concentration; lower median concentrations of venous blood bicarbonate, serum chloride and total CO2; and higher medians of PT, serum total bilirubin and urea concentrations, and ALT and AST activities. Intoxicated dogs were commonly treated with diphenhydramine, atropine-sulfate, antibiotics, diazepam and pralidoxime, while some (19.2%) required general anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. The survival rate of dogs treated by gastric lavage was higher (P = 0.041) compared to that of the remaining dogs. Development of respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation requirement were significantly associated (P < 0.001) with death. The mortality rate was 17%. SN - 1532-2971 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31492383/Clinical_manifestations,_laboratory_findings,_treatment_and_outcome_of_acute_organophosphate_or_carbamate_intoxication_in_102_dogs:_A_retrospective_study L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1090-0233(18)30649-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -