Experimental models assessing bilirubin neurotoxicity.Pediatr Res 2019PR
The molecular and cellular events leading to bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity, the mechanisms regulating liver and intestine expression in neonates, and alternative pathways of bilirubin catabolism remain incompletely defined. To answer these questions, researchers have developed a number of model systems to closely recapitulate the main characteristics of the disease, ranging from tissue cultures to engineered mouse models. In the present review we describe in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models developed to study bilirubin metabolism and neurotoxicity, with a special focus on the use of engineered animal models. In addition, we discussed the most recent studies related to potential therapeutic approaches to treat neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, ranging from anti-inflammatory drugs, activation of nuclear receptor pathways, blockade of bilirubin catabolism, and stimulation of alternative bilirubin-disposal pathways.