Management of refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: current perspectives.J Blood Med 2019; 10:265-278JB
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is increasingly observed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), with a reported incidence between 4% and 6%. The disease is generally severe and refractory to standard therapy, with high mortality, and there are neither defined therapies, nor prospective clinical trials addressing the best treatment. Most of the knowledge on the therapy of AIHAs derives from primary forms, which are highly heterogeneous as well, further complicating the management of post-allo-HSCT forms. The review addresses the risk factors associated with post-allo-AIHA, including unrelated donor, the development of chronic extensive graft-versus-host disease, CMV reactivation, nonmalignant diagnosis pre-HSCT, and alemtuzumab use in conditioning regimens. Regarding therapy, we describe standard treatments, such as corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, splenectomy, rituximab, cyclophosphamide, and plasma exchange, which have lower response rates than those reported in primary forms. New therapeutic options, including sirolimus, bortezomib, abatacept, daratumumab and complement inhibitors, are promising tools for this detrimental complication occurring after allo-HSCT.