Effects of dietary fenugreek seed extracts on growth performance, plasma biochemical parameters, lipid metabolism, Nrf2 antioxidant capacity and immune response of juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2019 Nov; 94:211-219.FS
Dietary administration of some plant-derived substances have been proved of great economic value in aquaculture. In order to investigate the effects of dietary fenugreek seed extracts (FSE) on juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), a feeding trial was conducted for 8 weeks. The results showed that final weight (FW), weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were not significantly affected by dietary FSE levels. The whole body lipid contents of fish fed with 0.04%, 0.08% and 0.16% FSE diets were significantly lowered compared to the control group. Dietary FSE diets significantly affected plasma complement component 3 (C3), immunoglobulin M (IgM), albumin (ALB) and total protein (TP). The relative expressions of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP1) mRNA in the liver of fish decreased significantly with increasing dietary FSE levels from 0% up to 0.04%. FSE supplementation diets lowered the liver pro-inflammatory genes expressions by regulating tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) mRNA levels and increased anti-inflammatory genes expression by regulating transforming growth factor (TGF-β) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). FSE diets increased growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and target of rapamycin (TOR) mRNA levels from 0% up to 0.04%, 0.04% FSE diets significantly increased growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA levels and S6 kinase-polypeptide 1 (S6K1) mRNA levels compared to the control group. 0.04% FSE diets significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and 0.08% FSE diets significantly increased catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, 0.16% FSE diets significantly increased total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activities compared to the control group. Additionally, compared to the control group, 0.04% dietary FSE significantly up-regulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA levels and glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1) mRNA levels, at the same time, 0.02%, 0.04%, 0.08%, 0.16% FSE diets significantly down-regulated kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) mRNA levels. However, no significant effects were observed on copper zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD). Our study indicated that dietary FSE could improve plasma biochemical parameters, regulate lipid metabolism related genes, promote Nrf2 antioxidant capacity and enhance immune response of juvenile blunt snout bream.