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Archaea and Bacteria Exposure in Danish Livestock Farmers.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Methanogenic archaea have been found to make up part of the bioaerosols in pig, cattle, and poultry farms. So far no attempts have been made to determine how season, farm type, and farm characteristics may affect workers' exposure to archaea.

METHODS

Personal filter samples from 327 farmers working on 89 Danish farms were analysed for the number of 16S rRNA gene copies from archaea and bacteria and for their dust and endotoxin content. The farms were visited during summer and winter. Information on farm type and stable characteristics were collected using self-reported activity diaries and walk-through surveys. Differences in archaea and bacteria levels with farm type and stable characteristics and correlations with dust and endotoxin levels were examined.

RESULTS

Personal archaea exposure was documented in all farm types including, for the first time, during mink farming. At 7.3*104 gene copies m-3 the archaea levels were around two orders of magnitude lower than bacteria levels at 5.7*106 gene copies m-3. At 1.7*105 gene copies m-3 among pig farmers and 1.9*104 gene copies m-3 among cattle farmers the archaea levels differed with farm type (P < 0.0005). The archaea and bacteria levels correlated weakly with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.17. Neither archaea nor bacteria levels differed by season. In pig farms the archaea levels differed by type of ventilation and by wetness of the floor.

CONCLUSIONS

Archaea levels were not neglible and appeared to vary greatly between farm types. In pig farms they varied with some farm characteristics. Archaea levels appeared to depend on factors that differed from those of bacteria.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Danish Ramazzini Centre, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.CRIUCPQ and Département de Biochimie, microbiologie et bioinformatique, Université Laval, Quebec City, Canada.Section of Work, Environment and Health, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. National Research Center for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.Section of Work, Environment and Health, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.CRIUCPQ and Département de Biochimie, microbiologie et bioinformatique, Université Laval, Quebec City, Canada.Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31504156

Citation

Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort, et al. "Archaea and Bacteria Exposure in Danish Livestock Farmers." Annals of Work Exposures and Health, 2019.
Bønløkke JH, Duchaine C, Schlünssen V, et al. Archaea and Bacteria Exposure in Danish Livestock Farmers. Ann Work Expo Health. 2019.
Bønløkke, J. H., Duchaine, C., Schlünssen, V., Sigsgaard, T., Veillette, M., & Basinas, I. (2019). Archaea and Bacteria Exposure in Danish Livestock Farmers. Annals of Work Exposures and Health, doi:10.1093/annweh/wxz058.
Bønløkke JH, et al. Archaea and Bacteria Exposure in Danish Livestock Farmers. Ann Work Expo Health. 2019 Aug 28; PubMed PMID: 31504156.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Archaea and Bacteria Exposure in Danish Livestock Farmers. AU - Bønløkke,Jakob Hjort, AU - Duchaine,Caroline, AU - Schlünssen,Vivi, AU - Sigsgaard,Torben, AU - Veillette,Marc, AU - Basinas,Ioannis, Y1 - 2019/08/28/ PY - 2018/10/22/received PY - 2019/06/26/revised PY - 2019/07/17/accepted PY - 2019/9/11/entrez PY - 2019/9/11/pubmed PY - 2019/9/11/medline KW - agriculture KW - archaea KW - bacteria KW - bioaerosols KW - endotoxin KW - exposure assessment KW - personal sampling KW - ventilation JF - Annals of work exposures and health JO - Ann Work Expo Health N2 - OBJECTIVES: Methanogenic archaea have been found to make up part of the bioaerosols in pig, cattle, and poultry farms. So far no attempts have been made to determine how season, farm type, and farm characteristics may affect workers' exposure to archaea. METHODS: Personal filter samples from 327 farmers working on 89 Danish farms were analysed for the number of 16S rRNA gene copies from archaea and bacteria and for their dust and endotoxin content. The farms were visited during summer and winter. Information on farm type and stable characteristics were collected using self-reported activity diaries and walk-through surveys. Differences in archaea and bacteria levels with farm type and stable characteristics and correlations with dust and endotoxin levels were examined. RESULTS: Personal archaea exposure was documented in all farm types including, for the first time, during mink farming. At 7.3*104 gene copies m-3 the archaea levels were around two orders of magnitude lower than bacteria levels at 5.7*106 gene copies m-3. At 1.7*105 gene copies m-3 among pig farmers and 1.9*104 gene copies m-3 among cattle farmers the archaea levels differed with farm type (P < 0.0005). The archaea and bacteria levels correlated weakly with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.17. Neither archaea nor bacteria levels differed by season. In pig farms the archaea levels differed by type of ventilation and by wetness of the floor. CONCLUSIONS: Archaea levels were not neglible and appeared to vary greatly between farm types. In pig farms they varied with some farm characteristics. Archaea levels appeared to depend on factors that differed from those of bacteria. SN - 2398-7316 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31504156/Archaea_and_Bacteria_Exposure_in_Danish_Livestock_Farmers DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -