Comparative efficacy of three pediculicides to treat head lice infestation in primary school girls: a randomised controlled assessor blind trial in rural Iran.BMC Dermatol. 2019 09 12; 19(1):13.BD
Head lice infestation (Pediculosis) is one of the most important health challenges particularly in primary school-aged children. It is often present among 6-11-year-old students in various tropical and temperate regions of the world. The aim of this study was to examine epidemiologic indices and comparative analysis of two pyrethroid-based and one non-chemical pediculicide products on head lice treatment of primary school girls in a rural setting of Fars province, south Iran, as part of a randomized controlled assessor blind trial.
Before treatment, infested students were screened using plastic detection combs to find live head lice. Three independent parallel groups, each with about 25 participants (#77) were eventually twice with a week apart treated with either 1% permethrin, 0.2% parasidose (d-phenothrin) or 4% dimeticone lotion preparations. In each case, a questionnaire form was completed on epidemiologic factors. Data were registered after a fortnight from primary scalp treatment and re-inspection on days 2, 6, 9 and 14. Data analyses were performed using Chi-square test with a P-value < 0.05 being taken as statistically significant.
From 3728 inspected students, 87 (2.33%) girls were infested with head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, 1778. Ten students dropped out pertaining to exclusion criteria. No significant correlation was found between head lice infestation level and hair length, hair style, itching, nationality, age, settlement site and baths; but there was a significant relationship between age and hair style (P = 0.027). The efficacy values on each of the above re-inspection days from each of the three treatments were 81, 74, 70 and 63% for permethrin; 83, 92, 100 and 100% for dimeticone; and 96, 88, 96 and 92% for d-phenothrin; respectively. A quartile difference in efficacy of permethrin relative to dimeticone on day 14 represented the scale of head lice resistance to permethrin treatment. There were significant statistical differences in case re-inspection days 9 (P = 0.008) and 14 (P = 0.003) post treatment. Only two dropout cases, one non-compliant and the other lost before the second-week treatment, from permethrin trial were observed following two applications a week apart.
Dimeticone lotion had the fullest efficacy (100%) among all treatments. This high cure rate was attributed to the low level of infestation and the extent of patients' involvement. Parasidose swiftly ameliorated the infested cases by the second day since initial treatment. Female third grade students were the most infested cohort.
Current Controlled Trials- IRCT2016041627408N1 , Dated: 21-08-2017.