Bedaquiline containing triple combination powder for inhalation to treat drug-resistant tuberculosis.Int J Pharm. 2019 Oct 30; 570:118689.IJ
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is an emerging health problem, challenging the effective control of global TB. Current treatment of DR-TB includes administration of multiple anti-TB drugs via oral and parenteral routes for a duration of 20-28 months. High systemic exposure, side effects and lengthy treatment time are problems affecting current treatment. The success rate of current lengthy treatment regimens is generally <50%. Bedaquiline, a new anti-TB drug is synergistic with pyrazinamide and in combination with moxifloxacin accelerates sputum-culture conversion. Therefore, a triple combination of these drugs may have the potential to shorten the treatment time and improve treatment success. Additionally, inhalation of these drugs in combination may be advantageous due to the direct delivery to the lungs, possibly reducing systemic exposure. This study aimed to develop an inhalable triple combination powder of bedaquiline, moxifloxacin and pyrazinamide and study their physicochemical properties and safety. An inhalable (aerodynamic diameter: ≤2.4 µm) triple combination powder of bedaquiline, moxifloxacin and pyrazinamide with 20% w/w of L-leucine was prepared using a Buchi Mini Spray-Dryer. Combination powder consisted of spherical and porous particles. In vitro aerosolization (fine particle fraction, FPF) determined using a next generation impactor (NGI) showed improved FPF as a combination powder (>75.0%) when compared to single drug-only formulations (<45.0%). The powder was non-toxic to A549 and Calu-3 cells up to 100 µg/mL and stable at 30 ± 2% RH and ambient room temperature during one-month storage. This is the first study reporting the development of inhalable triple combination powder of bedaquiline, moxifloxacin and pyrazinamide with high aerosolization efficiency. The improved aerosolization may help to deliver a high dose of these drugs to treat drug-resistant tuberculosis.