Vitamin D deficiency in school-age Iranian children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms: A critical comparison with healthy controls.Child Neuropsychol 2019; :1-15CN
The associations between serum vitamin D levels and the severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms were assessed among Iranian hospitalized children (50 ADHD cases and 50 healthy (non-ADHD) controls) during 2014-2015. Levels of ADHD severity and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) were determined by the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) test and an ELISA kit, respectively. The serum 25OHD concentrations of <10, 10-29, and >30 ng/mL were respectively considered as deficient (severe deficiency), insufficient (mild deficiency), and sufficient levels of vitamin D. The association of nutrient bioavailability with ADHD was evaluated by statistical and regression analyses.There was no significant difference in the mean of socio-demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, weight, BMI, daily intake of dairy products, and daily sunlight exposure) between ADHD and non-ADHD subjects. The mean serum 25OHD concentration (16.57 ± 9.09 ng/mL) was found to be significantly lower in ADHD children with more parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels as compared to controls (22.01 ± 12.67ng/mL). The sufficient 25OHD concentration was more predominant in the controls than the cases (p = 0.002). A severe deficiency of vitamin D was more found in children with ADHD (3.36 times). There was a negative and significant association between the participants' age and their serum 25OHD levels. Although 25OHD levels in boys were significantly more than those in girls, the reduction of serum 25OHD concentration among boys with ADHD was more severe compared to the patient girls(p = 0.014). The results support the importance of vitamins D role in ADHD patients through the regular monitoring of serum 25OHD levels.