Metal(loid) bioaccessibility and children's health risk assessment of soil and indoor dust from rural and urban school and residential areas.Environ Geochem Health. 2020 May; 42(5):1291-1303.EG
This study focused on the oral bioaccessibility and children health risks of metal(loid)s (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in soil/indoor dust of school and households from Lanzhou, China. The simple bioaccessibility extraction test method was applied to assess bioaccessibility, and children's health risk was assessed via statistical modeling (hazard quotients, hazard index and incremental lifetime carcinogenic risk). Metal(loid) content and bioaccessibility in indoor dust samples were significantly higher than those in corresponding soil samples (p < 0.05). The order for mean values of bioaccessibility of the elements in soil was as follows: Cd (57.1%) > Zn (44.6%) > Pb (39.9%) > Cu (33.2%) > Ni (12.4%) > Cr (5.3%) > As (4.4%), while for indoor dust, the order was: As (73.0%) > Cd (68.4%) > Pb (63.3%) > Zn (60.4%) > Cu (36.5%) > Ni (25.2%) > Cr (13.6%). The Pearson correlation coefficient showed that metal(loid) bioaccessibility was in general significantly negatively correlated to the Al, Fe and Mn contents. Neither noncarcinogenic nor carcinogenic risks exceeded the tolerance interval for 3-5- and 6-9-year-old children for all elements. They both were mostly attributed to As considering metal(loid)s types and to school indoor dust considering sources. Therefore, maintaining interior sanitation would be an effective measure to reduce the potential health effects of indoor dust on children.