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Effects of Full-Fat and Fermented Dairy Products on Cardiometabolic Disease: Food Is More Than the Sum of Its Parts.
Adv Nutr 2019; 10(5):924S-930SAN

Abstract

Current dietary recommendations to limit consumption of saturated fat are largely based on early nutrition studies demonstrating a direct link between dietary saturated fat, elevated blood cholesterol levels, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. As full-fat dairy products are rich in saturated fat, these dietary guidelines recommend consumption of fat-free or low-fat dairy products in place of full-fat dairy. However, dairy products vary greatly in both their nutrient content and their bioactive ingredients, and research increasingly highlights the importance of focusing on whole foods (i.e., the food matrix) as opposed to single nutrients, such as saturated fat. In fact, the weight of evidence from recent large and well-controlled studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses of both observational studies and randomized controlled trials indicates that full-fat dairy products, particularly yogurt and cheese, do not exert the detrimental effects on insulin sensitivity, blood lipid profile, and blood pressure as previously predicted on the basis of their sodium and saturated fat contents; they do not increase cardiometabolic disease risk and may in fact protect against cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Although more research is warranted to adjust for possible confounding factors and to better understand the mechanisms of action of dairy products on health outcomes, it becomes increasingly clear that the recommendation to restrict dietary saturated fat to reduce risk of cardiometabolic disease is getting outdated. Therefore, the suggestion to restrict or eliminate full-fat dairy from the diet may not be the optimal strategy for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk and should be re-evaluated in light of recent evidence.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutrition, Exercise, and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Nørre Campus, Copenhagen, Denmark.Department of Nutrition, Exercise, and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg Campus, Frederiksberg, Denmark.Department of Nutrition, Exercise, and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg Campus, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31518411

Citation

Astrup, Arne, et al. "Effects of Full-Fat and Fermented Dairy Products On Cardiometabolic Disease: Food Is More Than the Sum of Its Parts." Advances in Nutrition (Bethesda, Md.), vol. 10, no. 5, 2019, 924S-930S.
Astrup A, Geiker NRW, Magkos F. Effects of Full-Fat and Fermented Dairy Products on Cardiometabolic Disease: Food Is More Than the Sum of Its Parts. Adv Nutr. 2019;10(5):924S-930S.
Astrup, A., Geiker, N. R. W., & Magkos, F. (2019). Effects of Full-Fat and Fermented Dairy Products on Cardiometabolic Disease: Food Is More Than the Sum of Its Parts. Advances in Nutrition (Bethesda, Md.), 10(5), 924S-930S. doi:10.1093/advances/nmz069.
Astrup A, Geiker NRW, Magkos F. Effects of Full-Fat and Fermented Dairy Products On Cardiometabolic Disease: Food Is More Than the Sum of Its Parts. Adv Nutr. 2019 Sep 1;10(5):924S-930S. PubMed PMID: 31518411.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of Full-Fat and Fermented Dairy Products on Cardiometabolic Disease: Food Is More Than the Sum of Its Parts. AU - Astrup,Arne, AU - Geiker,Nina Rica Wium, AU - Magkos,Faidon, PY - 2018/12/07/received PY - 2019/02/26/revised PY - 2019/06/12/accepted PY - 2019/9/14/entrez PY - 2019/9/14/pubmed PY - 2019/9/14/medline KW - cardiovascular disease KW - dairy KW - saturated fat KW - type 2 diabetes KW - yogurt SP - 924S EP - 930S JF - Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) JO - Adv Nutr VL - 10 IS - 5 N2 - Current dietary recommendations to limit consumption of saturated fat are largely based on early nutrition studies demonstrating a direct link between dietary saturated fat, elevated blood cholesterol levels, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. As full-fat dairy products are rich in saturated fat, these dietary guidelines recommend consumption of fat-free or low-fat dairy products in place of full-fat dairy. However, dairy products vary greatly in both their nutrient content and their bioactive ingredients, and research increasingly highlights the importance of focusing on whole foods (i.e., the food matrix) as opposed to single nutrients, such as saturated fat. In fact, the weight of evidence from recent large and well-controlled studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses of both observational studies and randomized controlled trials indicates that full-fat dairy products, particularly yogurt and cheese, do not exert the detrimental effects on insulin sensitivity, blood lipid profile, and blood pressure as previously predicted on the basis of their sodium and saturated fat contents; they do not increase cardiometabolic disease risk and may in fact protect against cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Although more research is warranted to adjust for possible confounding factors and to better understand the mechanisms of action of dairy products on health outcomes, it becomes increasingly clear that the recommendation to restrict dietary saturated fat to reduce risk of cardiometabolic disease is getting outdated. Therefore, the suggestion to restrict or eliminate full-fat dairy from the diet may not be the optimal strategy for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk and should be re-evaluated in light of recent evidence. SN - 2156-5376 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31518411/Effects_of_Full_Fat_and_Fermented_Dairy_Products_on_Cardiometabolic_Disease:_Food_Is_More_Than_the_Sum_of_Its_Parts_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/advances/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/advances/nmz069 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -