Contemporary surgical management of the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019 10; 33(5):101318.BP
About 30% of patients with MEN1 develop a Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Meanwhile it is well established that the causative gastrinomas are almost exclusively localized in the duodenum and not in the pancreas, MEN1 gastrinomas occur multicentric and are associated with hyperplastic gastrin cell lesions and tiny gastrin-producing micro tumors in contrast to sporadic duodenal gastrinomas. Regardless of the high prevalence of early lymphatic metastases, the survival is generally good with an aggressive course of disease in only about 20% of patients. Symptoms can be controlled medically. The indication, timing, type, and extent of surgery are highly controversial and are discussed in detail in this article by a thorough and critical review of literature. More radical procedures, like partial pancreaticoduodenectomy, are weighed against less aggressive local excision of gastrinomas and the pros and cons of both approaches are discussed in terms of long-term morbidity, biochemical cure, and survival.