Structured light imaging for breast-conserving surgery, part II: texture analysis and classification.J Biomed Opt 2019; 24(9):1-12JB
Subdiffuse spatial frequency domain imaging (sd-SFDI) data of 42 freshly excised, bread-loafed tumor resections from breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were evaluated using texture analysis and a machine learning framework for tissue classification. Resections contained 56 regions of interest (RoIs) determined by expert histopathological analysis. RoIs were coregistered with sd-SFDI data and sampled into ∼4 × 4 mm2 subimage samples of confirmed and homogeneous histological categories. Sd-SFDI reflectance textures were analyzed using gray-level co-occurrence matrix pixel statistics, image primitives, and power spectral density curve parameters. Texture metrics exhibited statistical significance (p-value < 0.05) between three benign and three malignant tissue subtypes. Pairs of benign and malignant subtypes underwent texture-based, binary classification with correlation-based feature selection. Classification performance was evaluated using fivefold cross-validation and feature grid searching. Classification using subdiffuse, monochromatic reflectance (illumination spatial frequency of fx = 1.37 mm − 1, optical wavelength of λ = 490 nm) achieved accuracies ranging from 0.55 (95% CI: 0.41 to 0.69) to 0.95 (95% CI: 0.90 to 1.00) depending on the benign–malignant diagnosis pair. Texture analysis of sd-SFDI data maintains the spatial context within images, is free of light transport model assumptions, and may provide an alternative, computationally efficient approach for wide field-of-view (cm2) BCS tumor margin assessment relative to pixel-based optical scatter or color properties alone.