Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) Australian Staphylococcus aureus Sepsis Outcome Programme (ASSOP) Annual Report 2017.Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2019; 43CD
From 1 January to 31 December 2017, 36 institutions around Australia participated in the Australian Staphylococcus aureus Sepsis Outcome Programme (ASSOP). The aim of ASSOP 2017 was to determine the proportion of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) isolates in Australia that are antimicrobial resistant, with particular emphasis on susceptibility to methicillin and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the methicillin-resistant isolates. A total of 2,515 S. aureus bacteraemia episodes were reported, of which 77% were community-onset. Approximately one in five S. aureus (19.0%) were methicillin resistant. The 30-day all-cause mortality associated with methicillin-resistant SAB was 18.7% which was significantly higher than the 14.0% mortality associated with methicillin-susceptible SAB. With the exception of the β-lactams and erythromycin, antimicrobial resistance in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus was rare. However in addition to the β-lactams approximately 42% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were resistant to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin and approximately 14% resistant to co-trimoxazole, tetracycline and gentamicin. When applying the EUCAST breakpoints teicoplanin resistance was detected in five S. aureus isolates. Resistance was not detected for vancomycin and linezolid. Resistance to non-beta-lactam antimicrobials was largely attributable to two healthcare-associated MRSA clones: ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) and ST239-III [3A] (Aus-2/3 EMRSA). ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) is the predominant healthcare-associated clone in Australia. Seventy-five percent of methicillin-resistant SAB were due to community-associated clones. Although polyclonal approximately 74% of community-associated clones were characterised as ST93-IV [2B] (Queensland CA-MRSA), ST5-IV [2B], ST45-VT [5C2&5] and ST1-IV [2B]. CA-MRSA, in particular the ST45-VT [5C2&5] clone has acquired multiple antimicrobial resistance determinants including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin and tetracycline. ST45-VT [5C2&5] accounted for 12.8% of CA-MRSA. As CA-MRSA is well established in the Australian community it is important antimicrobial resistance patterns in community- and healthcare-associated SAB is monitored as this information will guide therapeutic practices in treating S. aureus sepsis.