In silico identification of the neuropeptidome of the pond wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata.Gen Comp Endocrinol 2019; 285:113271GC
Neuropeptides have been successfully documented in numerous arthropod species via in silico prediction from transcriptomic and genomic data. We recently sequenced the genome and nine transcriptomes of a chelicerate species, the pond wolf spider, Pardosa pseudoannulata. Here 43 neuropeptide families encoded by 87 neuropeptide genes were identified, among which 84 genes were presented with complete open reading frames. The neuropeptide genes often had paralogs and paralogous genes showed different expression profiles in nine transcriptomes. Six crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/ion transport peptide-like (CHH/ITP) genes were predicted and CHH/ITP6 was expressed much higher than the others. Orcokinin 1 and orcokinin 2 genes were both expressed in brain at a similar level. But, interestingly, orcokinin 1 gene was ubiquitously expressed in appendages while orcokinin 2 gene was enriched in venom gland to an extreme extent. The expression profiling of neuropeptide genes offers clues for further functional investigation. Paralogous genes were also found to be clustered at scaffolds such as nine insulin-like peptide genes at three scaffolds and six pyrokinin genes at two scaffolds, indicating a result of local gene duplication. In contrast, the four C-type allatostatin family members were scattered at five scaffolds, different from their closely associated locations reported in many arthropod species including several spiders. The comprehensive inventory of P. pseudoannulata neuropeptides here expands our repository of chelicerate neuropeptides and further promotes our understanding of neuropeptide evolution and functions.