Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors: Lack of a Complete History Delays Diagnosis.Ann Intern Med 2019; 171(6):421-426AIM
On 15 May 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warned that administration of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors could lead to ketoacidosis in patients with diabetes mellitus. This announcement came more than 2 years after the FDA's first approval of an SGLT2 inhibitor, although the phenomenon had been known for more than 125 years. Luminaries of diabetes research (including Josef von Mering, Frederick Allen, I. Arthur Mirsky, and George Cahill) had described ketosis and ketoacidosis induced by administration of the phytochemical phlorizin, the prototypical SGLT inhibitor, as well as in patients with familial renal glucosuria, a condition that is considered a natural model of SGLT2 inhibition. Neither government regulators nor manufacturers of SGLT2 inhibitors evinced an awareness of this extensive historical record. The absence of historical inquiry delayed notice of ketoacidosis as an adverse reaction, which could have reduced the burden of illness from these drugs.