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Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking in pregnancy, and alcohol intake in pregnancy in relation to pubertal timing in the children.
BMC Pediatr. 2019 09 16; 19(1):338.BPed

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Earlier pubertal timing has been observed in many countries. We aimed to explore if prenatal exposure to maternal obesity, smoking, and alcohol intake was associated with timing of puberty by use of a novel marker of pubertal timing: 'the height difference in standard deviations' (HD:SDS).

METHODS

HD:SDS is the difference between pubertal height in standard deviations and adult height in standard deviations, and it correlates well with age at peak height velocity. Pubertal height was measured by health care professionals at approximately 13 years in boys and 11 years in girls, and the children's adult height was predicted from parental height reported by the mothers during pregnancy. Information on HD:SDS was available for 42,849 of 56,641 eligible boys and girls from the Danish National Birth Cohort born 2000-2003. In a subsample, HD:SDS was validated against age at the following self-reported pubertal milestones: Tanner stages, menarche, first ejaculation, voice break, acne, and axillary hair. Prenatal exposures were reported by mothers during pregnancy.

RESULTS

HD:SDS correlated moderately with the pubertal milestones considered (correlation coefficients: - 0.20 to - 0.53). With normal weight (body mass index (BMI): 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) as the reference, maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (BMI: 30.0+ kg/m2) was associated with earlier pubertal timing: 0.23 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18, 0.28) higher HD:SDS in boys and 0.19 (95% CI, 0.14, 0.24) higher HD:SDS in girls. Maternal smoking was not associated with pubertal timing. Compared to alcohol abstainers, maternal intake of > 3 units of alcohol weekly was associated with later puberty in boys only: 0.14 (95% CI, 0.05, 0.24) lower HD:SDS.

CONCLUSION

As correlations between HD:SDS and the considered pubertal milestones were comparable to those reported in the literature between age a peak height velocity and the considered pubertal milestones, the validity of HD:SDS seems acceptable. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with earlier pubertal timing in both sexes, and maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy was associated with later pubertal timing in boys. Maternal smoking has been linked to earlier timing of puberty, but this was not replicated in our setting using HD:SDS as a marker of pubertal timing.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Bartholins Allé 2, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark. nis.brix@gmail.com. Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1772, USA. nis.brix@gmail.com.Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Bartholins Allé 2, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark. Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1772, USA.Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Bartholins Allé 2, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark.Department of Public Health, Section for Biostatistics, Aarhus University, DK-8000, Aarhus, Denmark.Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1772, USA. Department of Statistics, UCLA College of Letters and Science, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1554, USA.Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1772, USA. Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, DK-8200, Aarhus, Denmark.Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Aarhus University Hospital, DK-8200, Aarhus, Denmark.Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Bartholins Allé 2, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31526385

Citation

Brix, Nis, et al. "Maternal Pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index, Smoking in Pregnancy, and Alcohol Intake in Pregnancy in Relation to Pubertal Timing in the Children." BMC Pediatrics, vol. 19, no. 1, 2019, p. 338.
Brix N, Ernst A, Lauridsen LLB, et al. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking in pregnancy, and alcohol intake in pregnancy in relation to pubertal timing in the children. BMC Pediatr. 2019;19(1):338.
Brix, N., Ernst, A., Lauridsen, L. L. B., Parner, E. T., Arah, O. A., Olsen, J., Henriksen, T. B., & Ramlau-Hansen, C. H. (2019). Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking in pregnancy, and alcohol intake in pregnancy in relation to pubertal timing in the children. BMC Pediatrics, 19(1), 338. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-019-1715-0
Brix N, et al. Maternal Pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index, Smoking in Pregnancy, and Alcohol Intake in Pregnancy in Relation to Pubertal Timing in the Children. BMC Pediatr. 2019 09 16;19(1):338. PubMed PMID: 31526385.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking in pregnancy, and alcohol intake in pregnancy in relation to pubertal timing in the children. AU - Brix,Nis, AU - Ernst,Andreas, AU - Lauridsen,Lea Lykke Braskhøj, AU - Parner,Erik Thorlund, AU - Arah,Onyebuchi A, AU - Olsen,Jørn, AU - Henriksen,Tine Brink, AU - Ramlau-Hansen,Cecilia Høst, Y1 - 2019/09/16/ PY - 2018/11/13/received PY - 2019/09/09/accepted PY - 2019/9/19/entrez PY - 2019/9/19/pubmed PY - 2020/11/11/medline KW - Age at menarche KW - Alcohol consumption KW - Marker of pubertal timing KW - Obesity KW - Prenatal exposures KW - Puberty KW - Smoking SP - 338 EP - 338 JF - BMC pediatrics JO - BMC Pediatr VL - 19 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Earlier pubertal timing has been observed in many countries. We aimed to explore if prenatal exposure to maternal obesity, smoking, and alcohol intake was associated with timing of puberty by use of a novel marker of pubertal timing: 'the height difference in standard deviations' (HD:SDS). METHODS: HD:SDS is the difference between pubertal height in standard deviations and adult height in standard deviations, and it correlates well with age at peak height velocity. Pubertal height was measured by health care professionals at approximately 13 years in boys and 11 years in girls, and the children's adult height was predicted from parental height reported by the mothers during pregnancy. Information on HD:SDS was available for 42,849 of 56,641 eligible boys and girls from the Danish National Birth Cohort born 2000-2003. In a subsample, HD:SDS was validated against age at the following self-reported pubertal milestones: Tanner stages, menarche, first ejaculation, voice break, acne, and axillary hair. Prenatal exposures were reported by mothers during pregnancy. RESULTS: HD:SDS correlated moderately with the pubertal milestones considered (correlation coefficients: - 0.20 to - 0.53). With normal weight (body mass index (BMI): 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) as the reference, maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (BMI: 30.0+ kg/m2) was associated with earlier pubertal timing: 0.23 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18, 0.28) higher HD:SDS in boys and 0.19 (95% CI, 0.14, 0.24) higher HD:SDS in girls. Maternal smoking was not associated with pubertal timing. Compared to alcohol abstainers, maternal intake of > 3 units of alcohol weekly was associated with later puberty in boys only: 0.14 (95% CI, 0.05, 0.24) lower HD:SDS. CONCLUSION: As correlations between HD:SDS and the considered pubertal milestones were comparable to those reported in the literature between age a peak height velocity and the considered pubertal milestones, the validity of HD:SDS seems acceptable. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with earlier pubertal timing in both sexes, and maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy was associated with later pubertal timing in boys. Maternal smoking has been linked to earlier timing of puberty, but this was not replicated in our setting using HD:SDS as a marker of pubertal timing. SN - 1471-2431 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31526385/Maternal_pre_pregnancy_body_mass_index_smoking_in_pregnancy_and_alcohol_intake_in_pregnancy_in_relation_to_pubertal_timing_in_the_children_ L2 - https://bmcpediatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12887-019-1715-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -