Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Inhibition Increases Postprandial Norepinephrine via Substance P (NK1 Receptor) During RAAS Inhibition.J Endocr Soc 2019; 3(10):1784-1798JE
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors may increase the risk of heart failure. Decreased degradation of vasoactive peptides like substance P [also degraded by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)] and Y1 agonists peptide YY (PYY 1-36) and neuropeptide Y (NPY 1-36) could contribute.
This study tested the hypothesis that there is an interactive effect of DPP4 inhibition and ACE inhibition (vs antihypertensive control subjects) on vasoactive peptides after a mixed meal.
Participants and Design
Fifty-three patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension were randomized to double-blind treatment with ramipril, valsartan, or amlodipine for 15 weeks in parallel groups. During the 5th, 10th, and 15th weeks, participants also received placebo + placebo, sitagliptin 100 mg/d + placebo, and sitagliptin + aprepitant 80 mg/d in random order. On the last day of each crossover treatment, participants underwent a mixed-meal study.
Sitagliptin increased postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 and decreased glucose in all antihypertensive groups. Sitagliptin increased NPY 1-36 and decreased Y2 agonists NPY 3-36 and PYY 3-36 in all groups. During ramipril or valsartan, but not amlodipine, sitagliptin increased postprandial norepinephrine; substance P receptor blockade with aprepitant prevented this effect. Despite increased norepinephrine, sitagliptin decreased postprandial blood pressure during ACE inhibition.
DPP4 inhibition increases postprandial concentrations of the Y1 agonist NPY 1-36. During treatment with an ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker, DPP4 inhibition increased postprandial norepinephrine through a substance P receptor-dependent mechanism. Increased NPY 1-36 and norepinephrine could increase risk of heart failure but did not result in higher postprandial blood pressure.